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Baklava
BAKLAVA (/ˈbɑːkləvɑː/ , /bɑːkləˈvɑː/ , or /bəˈklɑːvə/ ; ) is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey . It is characteristic of the cuisines of the Levant , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Balkans , Maghreb , and of Central and West Asia . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Preparation * 4 Regional variations * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe word baklava is first attested in English in 1650, a borrowing from Ottoman Turkish بقلاوه /bɑːklɑvɑː/. The name baklava is used in many languages with minor phonetic and spelling variations. Historian Paul D. Buell argues that the word "baklava" may come from the Mongolian root baγla- 'to tie, wrap up, pile up' composed with the Turkic verbal ending -v; baγla- itself in Mongolian is a Turkic loanword
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Andrew Dalby
ANDREW DALBY (born 1947 in Liverpool
Liverpool
) is an English linguist , translator and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history , language , and Classical texts . CONTENTS * 1 Education and early career * 2 Regent\'s College and food writing * 3 Classics
Classics
* 4 Languages * 5 Works * 6 Notes * 7 External links EDUCATION AND EARLY CAREERDalby studied Latin
Latin
, French and Greek at the Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
. Here he also studied Romance languages and linguistics , earning a bachelor\'s degree in 1970. Dalby worked for fifteen years at Cambridge University Library
Cambridge University Library
, eventually specialising in Southern Asia
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Antiphanes (comic Poet)
ANTIPHANES ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀντιφάνης; c. 408 to 334 BCE) is regarded as the most important writer of the Middle Attic comedy with the exception of Alexis . He was apparently a foreigner (perhaps from Cius
Cius
on the Propontis , Smyrna
Smyrna
or Rhodes
Rhodes
) and, by some accounts, was the child of slaves. He settled in Athens
Athens
, where he began to write about 387. He was extremely prolific: more than 200 of the 365 (or 260) comedies attributed to him are known from the titles and considerable fragments preserved in Athenaeus
Athenaeus
. His plays chiefly deal with matters connected to mythological subjects, although others referenced particular professional and national persons or characters, while other plays focused on the intrigues of personal life
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Athenaeus
ATHENAEUS OF NAUCRATIS (/ˌæθəˈniːəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Latin : Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. The Suda
Suda
says only that he lived in the times of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
, but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus , who died in 192, shows that he survived that emperor. He was a contemporary of Adrantus . Several of his publications are lost, but the fifteen-volume Deipnosophistae mostly survives
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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De Agri Cultura
DE AGRI CULTURA ( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: , On Farming or On Agriculture ), written by Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder
, is the oldest surviving work of Latin prose. Alexander Hugh McDonald, in his article for the Oxford Classical Dictionary , dated this essay's composition to about 160 BC and noted that "for all of its lack of form, its details of old custom and superstition, and its archaic tone, it was an up-to-date directed from his own knowledge and experience to the new capitalistic farming." Cato was revered by many later authors for his practical attitudes, his natural stoicism and his tight, lucid prose. He is much quoted by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
, for example, in his Naturalis Historia
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Turkic Peoples
Islam ( Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja\'fari ) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity ) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites ) Irreligion ( Agnosticism · Atheism ) Buddhism , Animism , Tengrism , Shamanism , Mani The TURKIC PEOPLES are a collection of ethnic groups that live in central, eastern, northern, and western Asia as well as parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family . They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds
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Dictionary Of Modern Written Arabic
The DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC is an Arabic -English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr and edited by J Milton Cowan . First published in 1961 by Otto Harrassowitz in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
, Germany, it was an enlarged and revised English version of Wehr's German Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart ("Arabic dictionary for the contemporary written language") (1952) and its Supplement (1959). Writing in the 1960s, a critic commented, "Of all the dictionaries of modern written Arabic , the work ... is the best." It remains the most widely used Arabic-English dictionary. The work is compiled on descriptive principles: only words and expressions that are attested in context are included. "It was chiefly based on combing modern works of Arabic literature for lexical items, rather than culling them from medieval Arabic dictionaries, which was what Lane had done in the nineteenth century"
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Istanbul
ISTANBUL (UK : /ˌɪstænˈbʊl/ , /-ˈbuːl/ or US : /-stɑːn-/ or /ˈɪstənˌbʊl/ ; Turkish : İstanbul ( listen )), historically known as CONSTANTINOPLE and BYZANTIUM, is the most populous city in Turkey
Turkey
and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center. Istanbul
Istanbul
is a transcontinental city in Eurasia
Eurasia
, straddling the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
strait (which separates Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea
Black Sea
. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side
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Janissaries
The JANISSARIES (Ottoman Turkish : يڭيچرى‎ yeñiçeri , meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan 's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe. The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I (1362–89). They began as an elite corps of slaves made up of kidnapped young Christian boys who were forced to convert to Islam, and became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. Unlike typical slaves, they were paid regular salaries. Forbidden to marry or engage in trade, their complete loyalty to the Sultan
Sultan
was expected. By the seventeenth century, due to a dramatic increase in the size of the Ottoman standing army, the corps' initially strict recruitment policy was relaxed. Civilians bought their way into the corps in order to benefit from the improved socioeconomic status it conferred upon them
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Speros Vryonis
SPEROS VRYONIS JR. (Greek : Σπυρίδων "Σπύρος" Βρυώνης, born July 18, 1928 in Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee
) is an American historian of Greek descent and a specialist in Byzantine , Balkan, and Greek history. He is the author of a number of works on Byzantine and Greek-Turkish relations, including his seminal The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor (1971) and The Mechanism of Catastrophe (2005). Vryonis attained his Bachelor of Arts in ancient history and the classics from Southwestern College (now Rhodes College ) in Memphis, Tennessee in 1950
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Byzantine Greek
MEDIEVAL GREEK, also known as BYZANTINE GREEK, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages , conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire . This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology , the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople , or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraq * جمهورية العراق ( Arabic
Arabic
) * کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms
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Gil Marks
GILBERT STANLEY MARKS (May 30, 1952 – December 5, 2014) was an American food writer and historian who published five cookbooks on the subject of Jewish food , and was the founding editor of Kosher Gourmet magazine. He moved to Israel and became a citizen in 2012 and died of lung cancer on December 5, 2014 at the hospice at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Published works * 3 Awards * 4 References EDUCATIONMarks was born in 1952 in Charleston, West Virginia . After graduating from high school at Talmudical Academy of Baltimore , Marks studied at Yeshiva University , and graduated with an M.A. in Jewish History, M.S.W. in Social Work, and rabbinical ordination from Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary , a Yeshiva University affiliate
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Charles Perry (food Writer)
CHARLES is a masculine given name from the French form Charles
Charles
of a Germanic name Karl. The original Anglo-Saxon was Ċearl or Ċeorl, as the name of King Cearl of Mercia
Cearl of Mercia
, that disappeared after the Norman conquest of England . The corresponding Old Norse form is Karl , and the German form is also Karl. The name was notably borne by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
( Charles
Charles
the Great), and was at the time Latinized as Karolus (as in Vita Karoli Magni ), later also as Carolus
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