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Baklava
Baklava
Baklava
(/ˈbɑːkləvɑː/, /bɑːkləˈvɑː/,[2] or /bəˈklɑːvə/;[3] [bɑːklɑvɑː]) is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the Levant, the Caucasus, Balkans, Maghreb, and of Central and West Asia.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Preparation 4 Regional variations 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesEtymology The word baklava is first attested in English in 1650,[4] a borrowing from Ottoman Turkish بقلاوه‬ /bɑːklɑvɑː/.[5][6] The name baklava is used in many languages with minor phonetic and spelling variations. Historian Paul D
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Murad II
Murad II
Murad II
(June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451. Murad II's reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christian
Christian
feudal lords of the Balkans
Balkans
and the Turkish beyliks in Anatolia, a conflict that lasted 25 years. He was brought up in Amasya, and ascended the throne on the death of his father Mehmed I. His mother was Valide Sultan
Sultan
Emine Hatun
Emine Hatun
(daughter of Suleyman Bey, ruler of Dulkadirids), his father's third consort
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Balaklava
Balaklava
Balaklava
(Ukrainian: Балаклáва, Russian: Балаклáва, Crimean Tatar: Balıqlava, Greek: Σύμβολον) is a former city on the Crimean Peninsula
Crimean Peninsula
and part of the city of Sevastopol. It was a city in its own right until 1957 when it was formally incorporated into the municipal borders of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
by the Soviet government. It also is an administrative center of Balaklava Raion
Balaklava Raion
that used to be part of the Crimean Oblast
Crimean Oblast
before it was transferred to Sevastopol Municipality
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Janissaries
The Janissaries
Janissaries
(Ottoman Turkish: يڭيچرى‎ yeñiçeri [jeniˈt͡ʃeɾi], meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.[3][4] The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I
Murad I
(1362–89).[5] They began as an elite corps of slaves made up of kidnapped young Christian boys who were forcefully converted to Islam,[6] and became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. Unlike typical slaves, they were paid regular salaries. Forbidden to marry or engage in trade, their complete loyalty to the Sultan
Sultan
was expected.[7] By the seventeenth century, due to a dramatic increase in the size of the Ottoman standing army, the corps' initially strict recruitment policy was relaxed
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Turkic Peoples
Islam (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism) Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, ManiThe Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[27] As racial purity has never been a Turkic membership criterion, many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
through language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion in a process called Turkification
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De Agri Cultura
De Agri Cultura
De Agri Cultura
( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: [ˈdeː ˈaɡriː kʊlˈtuːraː], On Farming or On Agriculture[1]), written by Cato the Elder, is the oldest surviving work of Latin
Latin
prose. Alexander Hugh McDonald, in his article for the Oxford Classical Dictionary, dated this essay's composition to about 160 BC and noted that "for all of its lack of form, its details of old custom and superstition, and its archaic tone, it was an up-to-date directed from his own knowledge and experience to the new capitalistic farming."[2] Cato was revered by many later authors for his practical attitudes, his natural stoicism and his tight, lucid prose
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Andrew Dalby
Andrew Dalby, FCIL (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts.Contents1 Education and early career 2 Regent's College
Regent's College
and food writing 3 Classics 4 Languages 5 Works 6 Notes 7 External linksEducation and early career[edit] Dalby studied Latin, French and Greek at the Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge. Here he also studied Romance languages and linguistics, earning a bachelor's degree in 1970. Dalby worked for fifteen years at Cambridge University Library, eventually specialising in Southern Asia. He gained familiarity with some other languages because of his work there, where he had to work with foreign serials and afterwards with South Asia and Southeast Asian materials
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Antiphanes (comic Poet)
Antiphanes (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιφάνης; c. 408 to 334 BCE) is regarded[by whom?] as the most important writer of the Middle Attic comedy with the exception of Alexis.[1] He was apparently a foreigner (perhaps from Cius
Cius
on the Propontis, Smyrna
Smyrna
or Rhodes[2]) and, by some accounts, was the child of slaves.[3] He settled in Athens, where he began to write about 387. He was extremely prolific: more than 200 of the 365 (or 260) comedies attributed to him are known from the titles and considerable fragments preserved in Athenaeus.[1] His plays chiefly deal with matters connected to mythological subjects, although others referenced particular professional and national persons or characters, while other plays focused on the intrigues of personal life
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Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Athenaeus
of Naucratis
Naucratis
(/ˌæθəˈniːəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Latin: Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. The Suda
Suda
says only that he lived in the times of Marcus Aurelius, but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus, who died in 192, shows that he survived that emperor
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Speros Vryonis
Speros Vryonis Jr. (Greek: Σπυρίδων "Σπύρος" Βρυώνης, born July 18, 1928 in Memphis, Tennessee) is an American historian of Greek descent and a specialist in Byzantine, Balkan, and Greek history.[1] He is the author of a number of works on Byzantine and Greek-Turkish relations, including his seminal The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor (1971) and The Mechanism of Catastrophe (2005). Vryonis attained his Bachelor of Arts in ancient history and the classics from Southwestern College (now Rhodes College) in Memphis, Tennessee in 1950. He received his Masters of Arts from Harvard University two years later and his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
from the same school in 1956.[2] Vryonis carried out his post-doctoral research at Dumbarton Oaks before joining the history faculty at the University of California, Los Angeles in the mid-1960s, where he served as the director of the G. E
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Dictionary Of Modern Written Arabic
The Dictionary
Dictionary
of Modern Written Arabic is an Arabic-English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr
and edited by J Milton Cowan. First published in 1961 by Otto Harrassowitz in Wiesbaden, Germany, it was an enlarged and revised English version of Wehr's German Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart ("Arabic dictionary for the contemporary written language") (1952) and its Supplement (1959)
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Byzantine Greek
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language
Greek language
between the end of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek
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Lesbos
Lesbos
Lesbos
(/ˈlɛzbɒs/, US: /ˈlɛzboʊs/; Greek: Λέσβος Lesvos, pronounced [ˈlezvos]), sometimes referred to as Mytilene
Mytilene
after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. It has an area of 1,633 km2 (631 sq mi)[1] with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece. It is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times[2] was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period. Lesbos
Lesbos
is also the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, within which Lesbos
Lesbos
island is one of five governing islands. The others are Chios, Ikaria, Lemnos, and Samos
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Muhammad Bin Hasan Al-Baghdadi
Muḥammad bin al-Ḥasan bin Muḥammad bin al-Karīm al-Baghdadi, usually called al-Baghdadi (d. 1239 AD) was the compiler of an early Arabic language
Arabic language
cookbook of the Abbasid period, كتاب الطبيخ Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ (The Book of Dishes), written in 1226. Manuscripts and Turkish translations[edit] The only original manuscript of Al-Baghdadi's book survives at Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
and according to Charles Perry, "for centuries, it had been the favorite cook-book of the Turks". Further 260 recipes had been added to the original by Turkish compilers at an unknown date and retitled as Kitâbü’l-Vasfi’l-Et‘ime el-Mu‘tâde, with two of its known three copies found at the Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
Library
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