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Bakhchisaray
Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
(Ukrainian: Бахчисарáй; Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray; Russian: Бахчисарáй; Turkish: Bahçesaray; Persian: باغچه سرای‎) is a city in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine
Ukraine
and annexed[2] by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea. It is the administrative center of the Bakhchysarai Raion
Bakhchysarai Raion
(district), as well as the former capital of the Crimean Khanate. Its main landmark is Hansaray, the only extant palace of the Crimean Khans, currently opened to tourists as a museum. Population: 27,448 (2014 Census).[3]Contents1 History 2 Name and associations 3 Attractions 4 Demographics 5 International relations5.1 Twin towns – Sister cities6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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City
A city is a large human settlement.[4][5] Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, roughly half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability.[6] Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification
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Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
Tatars
(Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, Turkish: Kırım Tatarları, Russian: Крымские Татары, Ukrainian: Кримськi Татари) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula
Crimean Peninsula
during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea
Crimea
in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea. Since 2014 Crimean Tatars
Tatars
were officially recognized as indigenous peoples of Ukraine.[10] Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea, Russian authorities recognized Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
as an extremist organization, and banned it in 26 April 2016
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Capital City
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Raion
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "rayon" (meaning "honeycomb, department"),[1] which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".[2] The term "raion" also can be used simply as a kind of administrative division without anything to do with ethnicity or nationality. A raion is a standardized administrative entity across most of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and is usually a subdivision two steps below the national level. However, in smaller USSR republics, it could be the primary level of administrative division (Administrative divisions of Armenia, Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan)
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Crimean Federal District Census (2014)
The first Crimean Federal District
Crimean Federal District
census (Russian: Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе), transliterated as Perepis naseleniya v Krymskom federalnom okruge, was carried out in Crimea
Crimea
by Russia
Russia
in 2014, following its annexation by Russia.[1][2] The census found the total population to be 2,284,769 inhabitants.[3]References[edit]^ Ukraine: Putin signs Crimea
Crimea
annexation, BBC News
BBC News
(21 March 2014) ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/demo/perepis_krim/perepis_krim.html ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service, ed. (2015). Итоги переписи населения в Крымском федеральном округе [Results of the [2014] Crimean Federal districts] (PDF) (in Russian)
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Carlo Bossoli
Carlo Bossoli
Carlo Bossoli
(6 December 1815, in Lugano
Lugano
– 1 August 1884, in Turin) was a Swiss-born Italian painter and lithographer, who spent his early career in Ukraine. He is best known for historical scenes from the Risorgimento.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected paintings 3 References 4 Further reading 5 See also 6 External linksBiography[edit] His father was a stonemason of Italian origin, working in Switzerland. In 1820, his family moved to accept work in Odessa.[1] Until 1826, he studied with the Capuchins. After graduating, he worked in a shop that sold antiquarian books and prints. It was there that he began to draw and sketch. In 1828, he was hired by the Odessa
Odessa
Opera to work as an assistant to Rinaldo Nannini (?-?),[1] a stage designer who had studied at La Scala
La Scala
under Alessandro Sanquirico. He began to sell his paintings in 1833
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Russo-Turkish War, 1787–1792
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791).Contents1 Background 2 War 3 Aftermath 4 References 5 SourcesBackground[edit] In May and June 1787, Catherine II of Russia
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Sürgün
The deportation of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
(Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Tatars from Crimea
Crimea
in May 1944. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD
NKVD
used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away
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Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz ([mit͡sˈkʲɛvit͡ʂ] ( listen); 24 December 1798 – 26 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted as one of Poland's "Three Bards" ("Trzej Wieszcze")[1] and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet.[2][3][4] He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic[5] and European[6] poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard".[7] A leading Romantic dramatist,[8] he has been compared in Poland
Poland
and Europe to Byron and Goethe.[7][8] He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. His other influential works include Konrad Wallenrod
Konrad Wallenrod
and Grażyna
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Minor Planet
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun
Sun
(or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.[a] Before 2006 the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially used the term minor planet, but during that year's meeting it reclassified minor planets and comets into dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies (SSSBs).[1] Minor planets can be dwarf planets, asteroids, trojans, centaurs, Kuiper belt
Kuiper belt
objects, and other trans-Neptunian objects.[2] As of 2018, the orbits of 757,626 minor planets were archived at the Minor Planet Center, 516,386 of which had received permanent numbers (for the complete list, see index).[3] The first minor planet to be discovered was Ceres in 1801
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