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Baiocasses
The BAIOCASSES were a Celtic tribe (pagus ) in ancient Gaul
Gaul
. They were a tribal division of the civitas of the Lexovii , in the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis
Gallia Lugdunensis
. The Baiocasses
Baiocasses
were located east of the Venelli and west of the Belgic Veliocasses. The Latin
Latin
name for their territory was the Pagus Baiocensis, corresponding to the area in Normandy
Normandy
now known as le Bessin. This is the location of the modern city of Bayeux
Bayeux
, which takes its name from the tribe. Their principal city was known during the late Roman Imperial era as Civitas
Civitas
Baiocassium ("City of the Baiocasses"), from which Bayeux
Bayeux
derives
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Notitia Dignitatum
The NOTITIA DIGNITATUM ( Latin
Latin
for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of very few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions , and army units . It is usually considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the AD 390s. However, the text does not date its own authorship or accuracy, and omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content
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Pliny The Elder
PLINY THE ELDER (born GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, AD 23 – 79) was a Roman author , naturalist and natural philosopher , a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and friend of the emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias . His nephew, Pliny the Younger , wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus : For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred. In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions
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Personal Name
A PERSONAL NAME or full name the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group , with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth and legal names of the individual, seen below. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy . In Western culture
Western culture
, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, personal name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name, or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson —the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan. Where there are two or more given names, typically only one (in English-speaking cultures usually the first) is used in normal speech
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Gallic Wars
300,000+ fighting men (mainly irregulars) CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 30,000+ killed, 10,000+ wounded about 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians killed. Modern estimates at least hundreds of thousands. * v * t * e Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
* Magetobriga (63 BC) * Arar (58 BC) * Bibracte (58 BC) * Vosges (58 BC) * Axona (57 BC) * Sabis (57 BC) * Octodurus (57–56 BC) * Ambiorix\'s revolt (54–53 BC) * Avaricum (52 BC) * Gergovia (52 BC) * Alesia (52 BC) * Uxellodunum (51 BC) The GALLIC WARS were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against several Gallic tribes
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Commentarii De Bello Gallico
COMMENTARII DE BELLO GALLICO (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War ), also simply BELLUM GALLICUM (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar 's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
, written as a third-person narrative . In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul
Gaul
that opposed Roman conquest. The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is ambiguous, as the term had various connotations in Roman writing and discourse during Caesar's time
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William The Conqueror
WILLIAM I (c. 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR and sometimes WILLIAM THE BASTARD, was the first Norman King of England
King of England
, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo , he was Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
(as WILLIAM II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Julius Caesar
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR ( Latin : CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, pronounced , 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), usually called JULIUS CAESAR, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire . He is also known as a notable author of Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate , among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero
Cicero

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Celts
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Lyre
The LYRE (Greek : λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin
Latin
from the Greek ; the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B
Linear B
script. The lyres of Ur , excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq
Iraq
), date to 2500 BC. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete
Crete
). The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete
Crete
(1400 BC). The recitations of the Ancient Greeks were accompanied by lyre playing
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Natural History (Pliny)
PLINY\'S NATURAL HISTORY ( Latin
Latin
: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin
Latin
by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history ; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life". It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia . The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes. These cover topics including astronomy , mathematics , geography , ethnography , anthropology , human physiology , zoology , botany , agriculture , horticulture , pharmacology , mining , mineralogy , sculpture , painting , and precious stones
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Catalauni
The Catalauni were a tribe of Belgic Gaul . Etymologically, their name is not connected to the British Catuvellauni so there is no basis to make an equation between the two
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Condrusi
The CONDRUSI were a Germanic tribe of ancient Belgium
Belgium
, which takes its name from the political and ethnic group known to the Romans as the Belgae
Belgae
. The Condrusi
Condrusi
were probably located in the region now known as Condroz , named after them, between Liège and Namur . The terrain is wooded hills on the northeastern edge of the Ardennes
Ardennes
. The Belgae
Belgae
were distinguished from the Celts
Celts
and apparently claimed to be of Germanic descent. From Belgic names we know that the Belgae were heavily influenced by the Gaulish
Gaulish
language, but from other information we know that they were also heavily influenced by Germanic peoples on the east of the Rhine
Rhine
river
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Belenus
BELENUS (also Belenos, Belinus, Bel, Beli Mawr) is a Sun God from Celtic Mythology and, in the third century, the patron deity of the Italian city of Aquileia
Aquileia
. Called the "Fair Shining One," (or The Shining God) he was one of the most ancient and most widely worshiped Celtic deities and is associated with the ancient fire festival and modern Sabbat
Sabbat
Beltane . He was associated with the horse (as shown by the clay horse figurine offerings at Belenos’ Sainte-Sabine shrine in Burgundy
Burgundy
) and also the Wheel. Perhaps like Apollo
Apollo
- with whom he became identified in the Augustan History
Augustan History
- Belenos was thought to ride the Sun across the sky in a horse-drawn chariot
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Druid
A DRUID (Welsh : derwydd; Old Irish : druí) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures. While perhaps best remembered as religious leaders, they were also legal authorities, adjudicators, lorekeepers, medical professionals and political advisors. While the druids are reported to have been literate, they are believed to have been prevented by doctrine from recording their knowledge in written form, thus they left no written accounts of themselves. They are however attested in some detail by their contemporaries from other cultures, such as the Romans. The earliest known references to the druids date to the fourth century BCE and the oldest detailed description comes from Julius Caesar 's Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
(50s BCE)
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Bordelaise
www.bordeaux.fr UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE OFFICIAL NAME Bordeaux, Port of the Moon CRITERIA Cultural: ii, iv REFERENCE 1256 INSCRIPTION 2007 (31st Session ) AREA 1,731 ha BUFFER ZONE 11,974 ha1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. BORDEAUX (French pronunciation: ​ ; Gascon Occitan : Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France . The municipality (commune ) of Bordeaux proper has a population of 246,586 (2014). Together with its suburbs and satellite towns , Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole . With 760,933 inhabitants (as of 2014 ) and 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth largest in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse and Lille
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