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Baiocasses
The Baiocasses
Baiocasses
were a Celtic tribe (pagus) in ancient Gaul. They were a tribal division of the civitas of the Lexovii, in the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. The Baiocasses
Baiocasses
were located east of the Venelli and west of the Belgic Veliocasses. The Latin
Latin
name for their territory was the Pagus Baiocensis, corresponding to the area in Normandy
Normandy
now known as le Bessin. This is the location of the modern city of Bayeux, which takes its name from the tribe. Their principal city was known during the late Roman Imperial era as Civitas
Civitas
Baiocassium ("City of the Baiocasses"), from which Bayeux
Bayeux
derives
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Celts
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Lyre
The lyre (Greek: λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin
Latin
from the Greek;[1] the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B
Linear B
script.[2] The lyres of Ur, excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), date to 2500 BC.[3] The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada
Hagia Triada
(a Minoan settlement in Crete)
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Commentarii De Bello Gallico
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative
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Gallic Wars
300,000+ fighting men (mainly irregulars)Casualties and losses30,000+ killed, 10,000+ woundedAbout 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians killed. Modern estimates are significantly lower, but still in several hundreds of thousandsv t eGallic WarsMagetobriga (63 BC) Arar (58 BC) Bibracte
Bibracte
(58 BC) Vosges (58 BC) Axona (57 BC) Sabis (57 BC) Atuatuci (57 BC) Octodurus (57–56 BC) Ambiorix's revolt
Ambiorix's revolt
(54–53 BC) Avaricum
Avaricum
(52 BC) Gergovia
Gergovia
(52 BC) Lutetia (52 BC) Alesia (52 BC) Uxellodunum (51 BC)The Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against several Gallic tribes
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Notitia Dignitatum
The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
( Latin
Latin
for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of very few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions, and army units. It is usually considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the AD 390s
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Personal Name
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan
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Pagus
In the later Western Roman Empire, following the reorganization of Diocletian, a pagus (compare French pays, Spanish pago, "a region, terroir") became the smallest administrative district of a province. By that time the word had long been in use with various meanings. Smith's Dictionary says of it, "The meaning of this word cannot be given in precise and absolute terms, partly because we can have no doubt that its significance varied greatly between the earliest and the later times of Roman history, partly because of its application by Latin writers to similar, but not identical, communities outside Italy ..."[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Roman usage 3 Post-Roman pagus 4 Notes 5 Bibliography 6 External linksEtymology[edit] Pāgus is a native Latin word from a root pāg-, a lengthened grade of Indo-European *pag-, a verbal root, "fasten" (English peg), which in the word may be translated as "boundary staked out on the ground".[2] In semantics, *pag- used in pāgus is a s
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Bordelaise
www.bordeaux.fr ‹ The template Infobox UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is being considered for merging. ›UNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial name Bordeaux, Port of the MoonCriteria Cultural: ii, ivReference 1256Inscription 2007 (31st Session)Area 1,731 haBuffer zone 11,974 ha1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁdo]; Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne
Garonne
River in the Gironde
Gironde
department in southwestern France. The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
proper has a population of 246,586 (2014)
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William The Conqueror
William I[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][b] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke
Duke
of Normandy
Normandy
(as William II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke
Duke
of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Ausonius
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius
Ausonius
(/ɔːˈsoʊniəs/; c. 310 – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala
Burdigala
in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France. For a time he was tutor to the future emperor Gratian, who afterwards bestowed the consulship on him. His best-known poems are Mosella, a description of the river Moselle, and Ephemeris, an account of a typical day in his life. His many other verses show his concern for his family, friends, teachers, and circle of well-to-do acquaintances and his delight in the technical handling of meter.Contents1 Biography 2 List of his works 3 Some characteristics of his works 4 Saw mill 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography[edit] Decimius Magnus Ausonius
Ausonius
was born c. 310 in Burdigala, the son of Julius Ausonius
Ausonius
(c
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Druid
A druid (Welsh: derwydd; Old Irish: druí; Scottish Gaelic: draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures. While perhaps best remembered as religious leaders, they were also legal authorities, adjudicators, lorekeepers, medical professionals and political advisors. While the druids are reported to have been literate, they are believed to have been prevented by doctrine from recording their knowledge in written form, thus they left no written accounts of themselves. They are however attested in some detail by their contemporaries from other cultures, such as the Romans and the Greeks. The earliest known references to the druids date to the fourth century BCE and the oldest detailed description comes from Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
(50s BCE)
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Belenus
Belenus
Belenus
(also Belenos, Belinus, Bel, Beli Mawr) is a sun god from Celtic Mythology
Celtic Mythology
and, in the third century, the patron deity of the Italian city of Aquileia. Called the "Fair Shining One" (or "The Shining God"), he was one of the most ancient and most-widely worshiped Celtic deities and is associated with the ancient fire festival and modern Sabbat
Sabbat
Beltane.[1] He was associated with the horse (as shown by the clay horse figurine offerings at Belenos' Sainte-Sabine
Sainte-Sabine
shrine in Burgundy) and also the wheel
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Natural History (Pliny)
Pliny's Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin
Latin
by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life".[2] It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia. The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes
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Catalauni
The Catalauni were a tribe of Belgic Gaul. Etymologically, their name is not connected to the British Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
so there is no basis to make an equation between the two
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