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Baibars
Baibars
Baibars
or Baybars (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
in the Mamluk
Mamluk
Bahri dynasty
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Amir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Black Sea
The Black Sea
Black Sea
is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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List Of Mamluk Sultans
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Kipchak Languages
 Kipchak–Bulgar   Kipchak–Cuman   Kipchak–Nogai and Kyrgyz–Kipchak The Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
(also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by approximately 26–28 million people in much of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Eastern Europe, spanning from Ukraine
Ukraine
to China.Contents1 Linguistic features1.1 Shared features 1.2 Unique features2 Classification 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyLinguistic features[edit] The Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kipchak family. Shared features[edit]Change of Proto-Turkic *d to /j/ (e.g
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Desht-i Kipchak
Cuman languageReligion TengrismPolitical structure KhanateHistory •  Established 10th century •  Disestablished 1241Preceded by Succeeded byKimek KhanateKhazariaMongol EmpireHistory of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
552–744  Western Turkic  Eastern TurkicKhazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo
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Volga
The Volga (Russian: Во́лга, IPA: [ˈvoɫɡə] ( listen)) is the longest river in Europe. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. The river flows through central Russia
Russia
and into the Caspian Sea, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's watershed. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga
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Ural River
The Ural (Russian: Урал, pronounced [ʊˈraɫ]) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Bashkir: Яйыҡ, Yayıq, pronounced [jɑˈjɯq]; Kazakh: Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق, pronounced [ʒɑjə́q]), known as Yaik
Yaik
(Russian: Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and discharges into the Caspian Sea
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Ibn Taghrībirdī
Jamal al-Din Yusuf bin al- Amir
Amir
Sayf al-Din Taghribirdi (Arabic: جمال الدين يوسف بن الأمير سيف الدين تغري بردي) or Ibn Taghribirdi[1] (2 February 1411— 5 June 1470; 813-874 Hijri) was an Egyptian historian born into the Turkish Mamluk
Mamluk
elite of Cairo
Cairo
in the 15th century. He studied under al-Ayni and al-Maqrizi, two of the leading Cairene historians and scholars of the day.[2] His most famous work is a multi-volume chronicle of Egypt and the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultanate called al-Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa'l-Qahira. His style is annalistic and gives precise dates for most events; this format makes it clear that Ibn Taghribirdi had privileged access to the sultans and their records.Contents1 Works 2 Bibliography 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesWorks[edit]al-Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa'l-Qahira
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Second Bulgarian Empire
The Second Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
(Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.[2] A successor to the First Bulgarian Empire, it reached the peak of its power under Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It was succeeded by the Principality and later Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1878.[3][4] Until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
was the dominant power in the Balkans, defeating the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in several major battles. In 1205 Emperor Kaloyan defeated the newly established Latin Empire
Latin Empire
in the Battle of Adrianople
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Crimea
Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Ukrainian: Крим, Krym; Russian: Крым, Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, translit. Qırım; Turkish: Kırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit. Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson
Kherson
and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson
Kherson
Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
and is separated from Kuban
Kuban
by the Strait of Kerch
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Eastern Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(Levantine Seabasin)
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Alania
Alania
Alania
was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans (proto-Ossetians)[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia
Circassia
and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39. Its capital was Maghas, and it controlled a vital trade route through the Darial Pass.Contents1 History1.1 As vassal of Khazaria 1.2 Independence and Christianization 1.3 Later history2 Legacy 3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 SourcesHistory[edit] Further information: History of North Ossetia–Alania The Alans
Alans
(Alani) originated as an Iranian-speaking subdivision of the Sarmatians. They were split by the invasion of the Huns
Huns
into two parts, the European and the Caucasian
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Sīwās
Sivas
Sivas
( Latin
Latin
and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή; Armenian: Սեբաստիա) is a city in central Turkey
Turkey
and the seat of Sivas
Sivas
Province. According to a 2011 estimate, its urban population is 425,297. The city, which lies at an elevation of 1,278 metres (4,193 ft) in the broad valley of the Kızılırmak river, is a moderately-sized trade center and industrial city, although the economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Rail repair shops and a thriving manufacturing industry of rugs, bricks, cement, and cotton and woolen textiles form the mainstays of the city's economy
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Cairo
Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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