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Bahram Chobin
Bahrām Chōbīn (Middle Persian: ; Persian: بهرام چوبین‎), also known by his epithet Mihrevandak ("servant of Mihr (Mithra)",[1] was a famous spahbed (senior army commander) during late sixth-century Iran. He usurped the Sasanian throne from Khosrow II, ruling for a year as Bahram VI (590-591).[2] However, he was later defeated by Khosrow II
Khosrow II
and was forced to flee.Contents1 Family 2 Rise 3 Reign 4 The fate of his family 5 Legacy 6 Family tree 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksFamily[edit] Bahram Chobin
Bahram Chobin
was son of Bahram Gushnasp,[1] of the House of Mihran, one of the seven Parthian clans of the Sasanian Empire
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House Of Karen
The House of Karen (Middle Persian: Kārēn, Persian: قارن‎ Qārin or Qāran, قارنوند Qārinwand), also known as Karen-Pahlavi (Kārēn-Pahlaw) were an aristocratic feudal family of Hyrcania (Gurgan). The seat of the house lay at Nahavand, about 65 km south of Ecbatana (present-day Hamadan, Iran).Contents1 Origin and history 2 Karen Spahbeds 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesOrigin and history[edit] The Karenas, Karan-Vands, Qarinvand dynasty or Karen-Pahlevi as they are also called, claimed descent from Karen, a figure of folklore and son of the equally mythical Kaveh the Blacksmith. The Karenas are first attested in the Arsacid era, specifically as one of the feudal houses affiliated with the Parthian court. In this they were similar to the House of Suren, the only other attested feudal house of the Parthian period
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of
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Herat
Herat
Herat
(/hɛˈrɑːt/;[3] Persian: هرات‎, Herât; Pashto: هرات‎; Ancient Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Latin: Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300,[2] and serves as the capital of Herat
Herat
Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River. It is linked with Kandahar
Kandahar
and Mazar-e-Sharif
Mazar-e-Sharif
via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad
Mashhad
in neighboring Iran
Iran
through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
through the border town of Torghundi, both about 100 km (62 mi) away. Herat
Herat
dates back to the Avestan times and was traditionally known for its wine
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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Military Of The Sasanian Empire
The Sasanian army was the primary military body of the Sasanian armed forces, serving alongside the Sasanian navy. The birth of the army dates back to the rise of Ardashir I
Ardashir I
(r. 224–241), the founder of the Sasanian Empire, to the throne. Ardashir aimed at the revival of the Persian Empire, and to further this aim, he reformed the military by forming a standing army which was under his personal command and whose officers were separate from satraps, local princes and nobility. He restored the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
military organizations, retained the Parthian cavalry model, and employed new types of armour and siege warfare techniques
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(6 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(9 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(6 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(31 million). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(pop
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Balkh
Balkh
Balkh
(/bɑːlx/; Pashto
Pashto
and Persian: بلخ‬‎; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Bactrian: Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province
Balkh Province
of Afghanistan, about 20 km (12 mi) northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 mi) south of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
river and the Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
border. It was historically an ancient centre of Buddhism, Islam, and Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and one of the major cities of Khorasan, since the latter's earliest history. The ancient city of Balkh
Balkh
was known to the Ancient Greeks as Bactra, giving its name to Bactria. It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria
Bactria
or Tokharistan
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Amu Darya
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Afghanistan, and flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea
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Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara
(Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is one of the cities of Uzbekistan. Bukhara
Bukhara
is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments.[1] The nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population of 247,644 as of 31 August 2016[update].[2] People have inhabited the region around Bukhara
Bukhara
for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion
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Bagha Qaghan
Bagha Qaghan was the seventh ruler (587–589) of the Turkic Kaganate.[1] He may have been [2] the 'great kaghan' that was killed with an arrow by Persian commander Bahrām Chobin
Bahrām Chobin
during First Perso-Turkic War. He is given as Čulohóu in Chinese records, and as Šāwa, Sāva, or Sāba in Sasanian-based sources.[3]Bagha Qaghan Ashina ClanPreceded by Ishbara Kagan Kagan of the Turkic Kaganate 587–589 Succeeded by Tulan KaganReferences[edit]^ Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-393-05975-5.  ^ Iranica.Bahram says 'great kaqan' without giving a name. Baumer, Hist.cent.asia,2,pp99,174 says 'may have been' citing Al-Tabari
Al-Tabari
who said 'highest kaghan'. Chavannes guessed 'Sogdian sub-king'. Litvinsky, hist.civs.cent.asia,iii,369 has "Ch'u-lo"
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Khazars
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editPart of a series on theHistory of TatarstanGreat Bulgaria Turco-Mongols Great Tartary Volga Bulgaria Kipchaks Mongol
Mongol
invasion Golden Horde Khanate of Kazan Muscovy Kazan Governorate Idel-Ural State Tatar ASSR Republic of Tatarstanv t ePart of a series on theHistory of RussiaCimmerians 12th–7th century BCEScythians 8th–4th century BCESarmatians
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Georgia (country)
Coordinates: 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500Georgia საქართველო (Georgian) SakartveloFlagCoat of armsMotto:  ძალა ერთობაშია Dzala Ertobashia (English: "Strength is in Unity")Anthem:  თავისუფლება Tavisupleba (English: "Freedom")Areas under the control of the government in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
shown in dark green; areas outside of that control shown in light greenCapital Tbilisi 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E
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Aras (river)
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and then joins the Kura River, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
Mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), covering an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). The Aras River is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus.Contents1 Names 2 Description 3 Etymology and history 4 Iğdır
Iğdır
Aras Valley Bird Paradise 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 FootnotesNames[edit] In the classical antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as Araxes (Greek: Αράξης). Its modern Armenian name is Araks or Arax (Armenian: Արաքս). Historically it was also known as Yeraskh (Old Armenian: Երասխ), and its Old Georgian
Old Georgian
name is Rakhsi (რახსი). In Azerbaijani, the river name is Araz
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Carrot And Stick
The phrase "carrot and stick" is a metaphor for the use of a combination of reward and punishment to induce a desired behavior. It is based on the idea that a cart driver might activate a reluctant mule by dangling a carrot in front of it and smacking it on the rear with a stick. The idea sometimes appears as a metaphor for the realist concept of 'hard power'. The carrot might be a promise of economic aid from one nation to another, the stick might be a threat of military action. When the incentive is given only by displaying a (usually unattainable) reward, this is known simply as a "dangling carrot"
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