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Bactritida
The Bactritida are a small order of more or less straight-shelled (orthoconic) cephalopods that first appeared during the Emsian stage of the Devonian
Devonian
period (390 million years ago) and persisted until the Carnian
Carnian
stage of the Triassic
Triassic
period (235 million years ago). They are considered ancestors of the ammonoids, as well as of the coleoids (octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and the extinct belemnites). Bactritids are distinguished from the more primitive nautiloids by the small size and globular shape of the protoconch, the so-called embryonic shell. Nautiloids have relatively large embryonic shells, and living species lay a few large eggs
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Charles Hepworth Holland
Charles Hepworth Holland (born 30 June 1923) is a British geologist, Emeritus Fellow and former Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at Trinity College, Dublin. Career[edit] Holland was born in Southport and attended Southport Technical College. His initial study of physics and mathematics at University of Liverpool was interrupted by World War II. Influenced by a cousin, he subsequently studied geology at the University of Manchester. Remaining to do postgraduate research, he began work on the Ordovician of the Bala area and then the Silurian of Ludlow. At Manchester he formed the Ludlow Research Group (LRG) with Jim Lawson and Vic Walmsley. This led to the publication of A revised classification of the Ludlovian succession at Ludlow in 1959.[1] After a period as assistant lecturer at Manchester Holland moved to Bedford College as lecturer and subsequently senior lecturer
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Belemnite
Belemnitina Belemnopseina Belemnotheutina Belemnitida
Belemnitida
(or belemnites) is an extinct order of cephalopods which existed during the Mesozoic era, from the Hettangian
Hettangian
age of the Lower Jurassic
Jurassic
to the Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
age of the Upper Cretaceous. The belemnite is the state fossil of Delaware. Description[edit]Fossil guards of belemnites from the Jurassic
Jurassic
of WyomingBelemnites were superficially squid-like. They possessed ten arms of equal length studded with small inward-curving hooks used for grasping prey.[2] However, they lacked the pair of specialized tentacles present in modern squid.[3] Belemnites (and other belemnoids) were distinct from modern squid by possessing hard internal skeletons
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Bactroceras
Bactroceras is a genus of the family Baltoceratidae, orthoceroid cephalopods that lived during the early Middle Ordovician, from about 472—464 mya, existing for approximately 8 million years.[1]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Morphology 3 Fossil distribution 4 SourcesTaxonomy[edit] Bactroceras was named by Holm (1898). Its type is Bactroceras avus. It was assigned to the Baltoceratidae by Furnish and Glenister(1964)[1] and retained there by Evans (2005).[2] Some paleontologists have regarded Bactroceras as an early bactritid because of its spherical apex and ventral siphuncle.[3] However, a more recent study has argued that the shell of Bactroceras has important differences from those of true bactritids
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Apex (mollusc)
In anatomy, an apex (adjectival form: apical) is part of the shell of a mollusk. The apex is the pointed tip (the oldest part) of the shell of a gastropod, scaphopod, or cephalopod. The apex is used in end-blown conches.Contents1 Gastropods1.1 Coiled gastropod shells 1.2 Limpet-like gastropod shells2 Scaphopods 3 Cephalopods 4 Bivalves 5 ReferencesGastropods[edit] The word "apex" is most often used to mean the tip of the spire of the shell of a gastropod
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Siphuncle
The siphuncle is a strand of tissue passing longitudinally through the shell of a cephalopod mollusk. Only cephalopods with chambered shells have siphuncles, such as the extinct ammonites and belemnites, and the living nautiluses, cuttlefish, and Spirula. In the case of the cuttlefish, the siphuncle is indistinct and connects all the small chambers of that animal's highly modified shell; in the other cephalopods it is thread-like and passes through small openings in the walls dividing the chambers. The siphuncle is used primarily in emptying water from new chambers as the shell grows.[1] Essentially what happens is the cephalopod increases the saltiness of the blood in the siphuncle, and the water moves from the more dilute chamber into the blood through osmosis
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Orthocone
An orthocone is an unusually long straight shell of a nautiloid cephalopod. During the 18th and 19th centuries, all shells of this type were named Orthoceras, creating a wastebasket taxon, but it is now known that many groups of nautiloids developed or retained this type of shell. An orthocone can be thought of as like a Nautilus, but with the shell straight and uncoiled. It was previously believed that these represented the most primitive form of nautiloid, but it is now known that the earliest nautiloids had shells that were slightly curved. An orthoconic form evolved several times among cephalopods, and among nautiloid cephalopods is prevalent among the ellesmerocerids, endocerids, actinocerids, orthoceratoids, and bactritids. Orthocones existed from the Late Cambrian
Cambrian
to the Late Triassic, but they were most common in the early Paleozoic
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Michelinoceras
Michelinoceras is the oldest known genus of the Michelinocerida, more commonly known as the Orthocerida, characterized by long, slender, nearly cylindrical orthocones with a circular cross section, long camerae, very long body chambers, and a central or near central tubular siphuncle free of organic deposits. Septal necks are straight; connecting rings cylindrical and thin. Cameral deposits are well developed. A radula has been found in one species,[1] with seven teeth per row.[2] It had ten arms, two of which formed longer tentacles.[2]Contents1 Range 2 Taxonomy and derivation 3 See also 4 ReferencesRange[edit] Michelinoceras ranges from late in the Early Ordovician
Ordovician
to the Devonian
Devonian
with more poorly known species from the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
to the Late Triassic
Triassic
included in the genus
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Squid
Plesioteuthididae
Plesioteuthididae
(incertae sedis) Myopsida Oegopsida Squid
Squid
are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida
Myopsida
and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic. The two current orders comprise around 304 species.[2] Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, and arms. Squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms arranged in pairs and two, usually longer, tentacles
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Nautilaceae
†Aturiidae †Cymatoceratidae †Hercoglossidae †Paracenoceratidae †Pseudonautilidae NautilidaeThe Nautilaceae
Nautilaceae
form one of five superfamilies that make up the Nautilida
Nautilida
according to Bernard Kummel (1964), and the only one that survived past the Triassic. The Nautilaceae
Nautilaceae
comprise six families: Nautilidae, Paracenoceratidae, Pseudonautilidae, Cymatoceratidae, Hercoglossidae, and Aturiidae. Shimanskiy (1957) separated the Paracenoceratidae and Pseudonautilidae from his near equivalent Nautilina and added them to the Lyroceratina, expanding the equivalent Clydonautilaceae and bringing it into the Jurassic
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Proteroctopus
Proteroctopus
Proteroctopus
ribeti was a primitive octopod that lived in the Middle Jurassic, approximately 164 million years ago. The single fossil specimen assigned to this species originates from the Lower Callovian of Voulte-sur-Rhône
Voulte-sur-Rhône
in France. It is currently on display at the Musée de Paléontologie de La Voulte-sur-Rhône.[1] The morphology of P. ribeti suggests a necto-epipelagic mode of life.[1] See also[edit]Jeletzkya douglassae Pohlsepia mazonensis Palaeoctopus newboldi Vampyronassa rhodanicaReferences[edit]^ a b Fischer, J.C.; B. Riou (1982). "Le plus ancien octopode connu (Cephalopoda, Dibranchiata): Proteroctopus
Proteroctopus
ribeti nov. gen., nov. sp., du Callovien de l'Ardèche (France)". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II
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Styletoctopus
Styletoctopus is an extinct genus of octopus. The genus consists of the single species Styletoctopus annae, which lived approximately 95 million years ago.[1] Very few octopus species appear in the fossil record, as octopuses consist of soft tissue that usually decomposes before it has time to fossilize.[2] See also[edit]2009 extinct fossil octopus discoveriesReferences[edit]^ Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(Upper Cenomanian) of Hâkel and Hâdjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52: 65–81. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x.  ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, MSNBC, March 18, 2009Taxon identifiersWd: Q7629474 Plazi: 5F66EB53-3E2A-9546-FBAA-193A99B9DBB2 ZooBank: 736E4CF3-2AD2-4C76-8A79-DB2EC2606DC5This article related to the octopus is a stub
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