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Bactritida
The BACTRITIDA are a small order of more or less straight-shelled (orthoconic) cephalopods that first appeared during the Emsian stage of the Devonian
Devonian
period (390 million years ago) and persisted until the Carnian
Carnian
stage of the Triassic
Triassic
period (235 million years ago). They are considered ancestors of the ammonoids , as well as of the coleoids (octopus , squid , cuttlefish , and the extinct belemnites ). Bactritids are distinguished from the more primitive nautiloids by the small size and globular shape of the protoconch, the so-called embryonic shell. Nautiloids have relatively large embryonic shells, and living species lay a few large eggs. In contrast, bactritids and ammonoids produced large numbers of small eggs, each housing a small embryonic shell
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Bactroceras
BACTROCERAS is a genus of the family Baltoceratidae , orthoceroid cephalopods that lived during the early Middle Ordovician , from about 472—464 mya , existing for approximately 8 million years. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Morphology * 3 Fossil distribution * 4 Sources TAXONOMYBactroceras was named by Holm (1898). Its type is Bactroceras avus. It was assigned to the Baltoceratidae by Furnish and Glenister(1964) and retained there by Evans (2005). Some paleontologists have regarded Bactroceras as an early bactritid because of its spherical apex and ventral siphuncle . However, a more recent study has argued that the shell of Bactroceras has important differences from those of true bactritids. For instance, the first shell chamber of Bactroceras resembles that of other Ordovician orthocerids , such as Archigeisonoceras and Hedstroemoceras: it is about 10 mm in diameter and is short, forming a spherical cap
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Apex (mollusc)
In anatomy, an APEX (adjectival form : APICAL) is part of the shell of a mollusk . The apex is the pointed tip (the oldest part) of the shell of a gastropod , scaphopod , or cephalopod . The apex is used in end-blown conches . CONTENTS* 1 Gastropods * 1.1 Coiled gastropod shells * 1.2 Limpet-like gastropod shells * 2 Scaphopods * 3 Cephalopods * 4 Bivalves * 5 References GASTROPODSThe word "apex" is most often used to mean the tip of the spire of the shell of a gastropod . The apex is the first-formed, and therefore the oldest, part of the shell. To be more precise, the apex would usually be where the tip of the embryonic shell or protoconch is situated, if that is still present in the adult shell (often it is lost or eroded away)
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Siphuncle
The SIPHUNCLE is a strand of tissue passing longitudinally through the shell of a cephalopod mollusk . Only cephalopods with chambered shells have siphuncles, such as the extinct ammonites and belemnites , and the living nautiluses , cuttlefish , and Spirula
Spirula
. In the case of the cuttlefish, the siphuncle is indistinct and connects all the small chambers of that animal's highly modified shell; in the other cephalopods it is thread-like and passes through small openings in the walls dividing the chambers. The siphuncle is used primarily in emptying water from new chambers as the shell grows. Essentially what happens is the cephalopod increases the saltiness of the blood in the siphuncle, and the water moves from the more dilute chamber into the blood through osmosis
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest part of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Belemnite
Belemnitina Belemnopseina Belemnotheutina BELEMNITIDA (or BELEMNITES) is an extinct order of cephalopods which existed during the Mesozoic era , from the Hettangian age of the Lower Jurassic to the Maastrichtian age of the Upper Cretaceous . The belemnite is the state fossil of Delaware . DESCRIPTION Fossil guards of belemnites from the Jurassic of Wyoming Belemnites were superficially squid -like. They possessed ten arms of equal length studded with small inward-curving hooks used for grasping prey. However, they lacked the pair of specialized tentacles present in modern squid. Belemnites (and other belemnoids ) were distinct from modern squid by possessing hard internal skeletons . The internal skeleton was composed of the guard or rostrum (plural: rostra), a heavy solid structure at the posterior of the animals
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Coleoidea
Subclass COLEOIDEA, or DIBRANCHIATA, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish. Unlike its extant sister group Nautiloidea , whose members have a rigid outer shell for protection, the COLEOIDS have at most an internal cuttlebone , gladius , or shell that is used for buoyancy or support. Some species have lost their cuttlebone altogether, while in some it has been replaced by a chitinous support structure. The major divisions of Coleoidea
Coleoidea
are based upon the number of arms or tentacles and their structure. The extinct and most primitive form, the Belemnoidea , presumably had ten equally sized arms, in five pairs numbered dorsal to ventral as I, II, III, IV and V. More modern species either modified or lost a pair of arms
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Squid
A SQUID
SQUID
(for SUPERCONDUCTING QUANTUM INTERFERENCE DEVICE) is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields , based on superconducting loops containing Josephson junctions . SQUIDs are sensitive enough to measure fields as low as 5 a T (5×10−18 T) with a few days of averaged measurements. Their noise levels are as low as 3 f T·Hz −½. For comparison, a typical refrigerator magnet produces 0.01 tesla (10−2 T), and some processes in animals produce very small magnetic fields between 10−9 T and 10−6 T. Recently invented SERF atomic magnetometers are potentially more sensitive and do not require cryogenic refrigeration but are orders of magnitude larger in size (~1 cm3) and must be operated in a near-zero magnetic field
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Cuttlefish
CUTTLEFISH or CUTTLES are marine animals of the order SEPIIDA. They belong to the class Cephalopoda , which also includes squid , octopuses , and nautiluses . Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
have a unique internal shell , the cuttlebone . Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs . Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
have large, W-shaped pupils , eight arms , and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in), with the largest species , Sepia apama , reaching 50 cm (20 in) in mantle length and over 10.5 kg (23 lb) in mass. Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years
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Orthocone
An ORTHOCONE is an unusually long straight shell of a nautiloid cephalopod . During the 18th and 19th centuries, all shells of this type were named Orthoceras
Orthoceras
, but it is now known that many groups of nautiloids developed or retained this type of shell. An orthocone can be thought of as like a Nautilus
Nautilus
shell, but with the shell straight and uncoiled. It was previously believed that these represented the most primitive form of nautiloid, but it is now known that the earliest nautiloids had shells that were slightly curved. An orthoconic form evolved several times among cephalopods, and among nautiloid cephalopods is prevalent among the ellesmerocerids , endocerids , actinocerids , orthoceratoids , and bactritids
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Michelinoceras
MICHELINOCERAS is the oldest known genus of the Michelinocerida, more commonly known as the Orthocerida , characterized by long, slender, nearly cylindrical orthocones with a circular cross section, long camerae, very long body chambers, and a central or near central tubular siphuncle free of organic deposits. Septal necks are straight; connecting rings cylindrical and thin. Cameral deposits are well developed. A radula has been found in one species, with seven teeth per row. It had ten arms, two of which formed longer tentacles. CONTENTS * 1 Range * 2 Taxonomy and derivation * 3 See also * 4 References RANGEMichelinoceras ranges from late in the Early Ordovician to the Devonian with more poorly known species from the Carboniferous to the Late Triassic included in the genus. The earliest known for sure is Michelinoceras primum found in Cassinian age strata near the top of the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group in southern New Mexico and west Texas
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Styletoctopus
STYLETOCTOPUS is an extinct genus of octopus . The genus consists of the single species STYLETOCTOPUS ANNAE, which lived approximately 95 million years ago. Very few octopus species appear in the fossil record, as octopuses consist of soft tissue that usually decomposes before it has time to fossilize. SEE ALSO * 2009 extinct fossil octopus discoveries REFERENCES * ^ Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(Upper Cenomanian) of Hâkel and Hâdjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52: 65–81. doi :10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x . * ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, MSNBC, March 18, 2009 This article related to the octopus is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Keuppia
KEUPPIA is an extinct genus of octopus . It consists of two species, Keuppia
Keuppia
hyperbolaris and Keuppia
Keuppia
levante, both of which lived approximately 95 million years ago. Both species were found in fossilized form, which is very uncommon for extinct octopuses, as the soft tissue of dead octopuses almost always disintegrates before it has a chance to fossilize. These fossils, along with those of the genus Styletoctopus , were found from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
-age Hâqel and Hâdjoula localities in Lebanon
Lebanon
. The presence of a gladius vestige in this genus shows a transition from squid to octopus in which the inner shell has divided in two in early forms to eventually be reduced to lateralized stylets, as can be seen in Styletoctopus. SEE ALSO * 2009 extinct fossil octopus discoveries REFERENCES * ^ Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R
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Palaeoctopus
PALAEOCTOPUS NEWBOLDI is an extinct basal octopod that lived in the Late Cretaceous , approximately 89 to 71 million years ago. Fossil material assigned to this species originates from the Mount Hajoula region in Lebanon . The holotype was found below the Old Covent , Sahel-el-Alma , Mount Lebanon and is deposited at the Natural History Museum in London . It might belong to the Cirrina or be more basal in the Octopoda . Specimens from the Turonian of Vallecino, Mexico, originally described as P. pelagicus, are reinterpreted to be portions of a coelacanth . SEE ALSO * Jeletzkya douglassae * Pohlsepia mazonensis * Proteroctopus ribeti * Vampyronassa rhodanica * 2009 extinct fossil octopus discoveries REFERENCES * ^ Woodward, H. 1896. On a fossil octopus (Calais Newboldi, J. de C. Sby, MS) from the Cretaceous of the Lebanon. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 52: 229–234. * ^ Fuchs, D.; Ifrim, C.; Stinnesbeck, W. (2008)
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Proteroctopus
PROTEROCTOPUS RIBETI was a primitive octopod that lived in the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
, approximately 164 million years ago. The single fossil specimen assigned to this species originates from the Lower Callovian of Voulte-sur-Rhône in France
France
. It is currently on display at the Musée de Paléontologie de La Voulte-sur-Rhône. The morphology of P. ribeti suggests a necto-epipelagic mode of life. SEE ALSO * Jeletzkya douglassae * Pohlsepia mazonensis * Palaeoctopus newboldi
Palaeoctopus newboldi
* Vampyronassa rhodanica
Vampyronassa rhodanica
REFERENCES * ^ A B Fischer, J.C.; B. Riou (1982). "Le plus ancien octopode connu (Cephalopoda, Dibranchiata): Proteroctopus
Proteroctopus
ribeti nov. gen., nov. sp., du Callovien de l'Ardèche (France)". Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris, Serie II
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Nautilaceae
†Aturiidae †Cymatoceratidae †Hercoglossidae †Paracenoceratidae †Pseudonautilidae Nautilidae The NAUTILACEAE form one of five superfamilies that make up the Nautilida according to Bernard Kummel (1964), and the only one that survived past the Triassic . The Nautilaceae comprise six families: Nautilidae , Paracenoceratidae , Pseudonautilidae , Cymatoceratidae , Hercoglossidae , and Aturiidae . Shimanskiy (1957) separated the Paracenoceratidae and Pseudonautilidae from his near equivalent Nautilina and added them to the Lyroceratina , expanding the equivalent Clydonautilaceae and bringing it into the Jurassic. The Nautilaceae are represented by Nautilus and Allonautilus , genera included in the Nautilidae. Species in the Nautilaceae are generally smooth and involute with straight to strongly sinuous sutures and a small siphuncle
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