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Back Story
A backstory, background story, back-story, or background is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot. It is a literary device of a narrative history all chronologically earlier than the narrative of primary interest. It is the history of characters and other elements that underlie the situation existing at the main narrative's start. Even a purely historical work selectively reveals backstory to the audience.[1][2]Contents1 Usage 2 Recollection 3 Shared universe 4 See also 5 ReferencesUsage[edit] As a literary device backstory is often employed to lend depth or believability to the main story. The usefulness of having a dramatic revelation was recognized by Aristotle, in Poetics. Backstories are usually revealed, partially or in full, chronologically or otherwise, as the main narrative unfolds
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Back-story (production)
Back-story, in the production of consumer goods, is information about the effects of their production. As of June 2007[update] sustainability advocates had begun[when?] evoking literary backstories to refer to the "backstories" of goods: that is, the impacts on the planet and people, caused by producing and delivering those goods.[1] Without knowledge of the full backstory of a product, a consumer cannot accurately judge whether the impacts of purchasing it are good or bad
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Narration
Narration is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience.[1] Narration encompasses a set of techniques through which the creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative point of view: the perspective (or type of personal or non-personal "lens") through which a story is communicated Narrative voice: the format (or type presentational form) through which a story is communicated Narrative time: the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the past, the present, or the future.A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator (author) of the story develops to deliver information to the audience, particularly about the plot. In the case of most written narratives (novels, short stories, poems, etc.), the narrator typically functions to convey the story in its entirety
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Archenemy
An archenemy (sometimes spelled arch-enemy) is the main enemy of someone.[1][2][3] In fiction, it is a character who is the hero's or protagonist's most prominent and worst enemy. Etymology[edit] The word archenemy or arch-enemy originated around the mid-16th century, from the words arch- (from Greek "arkhos" meaning "most important")[3] and enemy.[1] An archenemy may also be referred to as archfoe, archvillain, or archnemesis.[citation needed] See also[edit]Antagonist Rogues gallery VillainSupervillainReferences[edit]^ a b "archenemy definition". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2008.  ^ "archenemy – Definition from the Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Online Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 26 June 2008.  ^ a b Wicaksono, Rachel. "BBC World Service Learning English Ask about English". BBC
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Character Arc
A character arc is the transformation or inner journey[1] of a character over the course of a story. If a story has a character arc, the character begins as one sort of person and gradually transforms into a different sort of person in response to changing developments in the story. Since the change is often substantive and in the opposite direction[clarification needed], the geometric term arc is often used to describe the sweeping change. In most stories, lead characters and protagonists are the characters most likely to experience character arcs,[2] although it is possible for lesser characters to change as well.[1] A driving element of the plots of many stories is that the main character seems initially unable to overcome opposing forces, possibly because he or she lacks skills or knowledge or resources or friends. To overcome such obstacles, the protagonist must change, possibly by learning new skills, to arrive at a higher sense of self-awareness or capability
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Deuteragonist
In literature, the deuteragonist or secondary main character (from Ancient Greek: δευτεραγωνιστής, deuteragōnistḗs, second actor) is the second most important character, after the protagonist and before the tritagonist.[1] The deuteragonist may switch between supporting and opposing the protagonist, depending on the deuteragonist's own conflict or plot.Contents1 History 2 Drama 3 Literature 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Greek drama began with simply one actor, the protagonist, and a chorus of dancers
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False Protagonist
In fiction, a false protagonist is a literary technique, often used to make the plot more jarring or more memorable by fooling the audience's preconceptions, that constructs a character who the audience assumes is the protagonist but is later revealed not to be. A false protagonist is presented at the start of the fictional work as the main character, but then is eradicated, often by killing them (usually for shock value or as a plot twist) or changed in terms of their role in the story (i.e. making them a lesser character, a character who leaves the story, or revealing them to actually be the antagonist).[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Examples2.1 Literature 2.2 Film 2.3 Video Games3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] In film, a character can be made to seem like the main protagonist based on a number of techniques (beyond just simply focusing the plot on their role)
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Focal Character
In any narrative, the focal character is the character on whom the audience is meant to place the majority of their interest and attention. They are almost always also the protagonist of the story; however, in cases where the "focal character" and "protagonist" are separate, the focal character's emotions and ambitions are not meant to be empathized with by the audience to as high an extent as the protagonist (this is the main difference between the two character terms). The focal character is mostly created to simply be the "excitement" of the story, though not necessarily the main character about whom the audience is emotionally concerned
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Foil (literature)
In fiction, a foil is a character who contrasts with another character —usually the protagonist— to highlight particular qualities of the other character.[2][3][4] In some cases, a subplot can be used as a foil to the main plot. This is especially true in the case of metafiction and the "story within a story" motif.[5] The word foil comes from the old practice of backing gems with foil to make them shine more brightly.[6] A foil usually either differs dramatically or is extremely similar but with a key difference setting them apart. The concept of a foil is also more widely applied to any comparison that is made to contrast a difference between two things.[7] Thomas F. Gieryn places these uses of literary foils into three categories, which Tamara A. P
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Protagonist
A protagonist (from Ancient Greek πρωταγωνιστής (protagonistes), meaning 'player of the first part, (chief actor)' is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama.[1][2] The protagonist is at the center of the story, makes the key decisions, and experiences the consequences of those decisions. The protagonist affects the main characters' circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories, then the character who is interpreted as the protagonist of each subplot or individual story.[3] The word protagonist is used notably in stories and forms of literature and culture that contain stories, which would include dramas, novels, operas and films
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Stock Character
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition. Stock characters are archetypal characters distinguished by their flatness. As a result, they tend to be easy targets for parody and to be criticized as clichés. The presence of a particular array of stock characters is a key component of many genres. The point of the stock character is to move the story along by allowing the audience to already understand the character.[1][2]Contents1 Examples and history1.1 Ancient Greece1.1.1 New Comedy 1.1.2 Mimistry1.2 Roman input1.2.1 Plautus 1.2.2 Laertius 1.2.3 Supersession by philosophy1.3 Other countries2 Academic analysis 3 Copyright
Copyright
law 4 See also 5 ReferencesExamples and history[edit]This section possibly contains original research
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Supporting Character
A supporting character is a character in a narrative that is not focused on by the primary storyline, but appears or is mentioned in the story enough to be more than just a minor character or a cameo appearance. Sometimes, supporting characters may develop a complex back-story of their own, but this is usually in relation to the main character, rather than entirely independently. In television, supporting characters may appear in more than half of the episodes per season. In some cases, especially in ongoing material such as comic books and television series, supporting characters themselves may become main characters in a spin-off if they are sufficiently popular with fans.[1] See also[edit]Bit player Henchman SidekickReferences[edit]^ Staff, THR. "6 Characters Who Became the Stars of Their Own Spinoff Films". The Hollywood Reporter
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Tritagonist
In literature, the tritagonist or tertiary main character (from Ancient Greek: τριταγωνιστής, tritagōnistḗs, third actor) is the third most important character of a narrative, after the protagonist and deuteragonist. In ancient Greek drama, the tritagonist was the third member of the acting troupe. As a character, a tritagonist may act as the instigator or cause of the sufferings of the protagonist. Despite being the least sympathetic character of the drama, he or she occasions the situations by which pity and sympathy for the protagonist are excited.[1]:451 History[edit] The part of the tritagonist emerged from earlier forms of two-actor drama
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Tragic Hero
A tragic hero is the protagonist of a tragedy in drama. In his Poetics, Aristotle
Aristotle
records the descriptions of the tragic hero to the playwright and strictly defines the place that the tragic hero must play and the kind of man he must be. Aristotle
Aristotle
based his observations on previous dramas.[1] Many of the most famous instances of tragic heroes appear in Greek literature, most notably the works of Sophocles and Euripides.Contents1 Aristotle's tragic hero 2 In other media 3 References 4 SourcesAristotle's tragic hero[edit] In Poetics, Aristotle
Aristotle
suggests that the hero of a tragedy must evoke a sense of pity or fear within the audience, stating that “the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity."[2] In essence, the focus of the hero should not be the loss of his prosperity
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Antagonist
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend. In other words, an antagonist is a person or a group of people who opposes a protagonist.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Types2.1 Heroes and villains 2.2 Other characters 2.3 Aspects of the protagonist 2.4 Non-personal3 Usage 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The English word antagonist comes from the Greek ἀνταγωνιστής – antagonistēs, "opponent, competitor, villain, enemy, rival," which is derived from anti- ("against") and agonizesthai ("to contend for a prize").[2][3]. Types[edit] Heroes and villains[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Action (narrative)
In literature, action is the physical movement of the characters.[1][2]Contents1 Action as a literary mode 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesAction as a literary mode[edit] "Action is the mode [that] fiction writers use to show what is happening at any given moment in the story," states Evan Marshall,[3] who identifies five fiction-writing modes: action, summary, dialogue, feelings/thoughts, and background.[4] Jessica Page Morrell lists six delivery modes for fiction-writing: action, exposition, description, dialogue, summary, and transition.[5] Peter Selgin
Peter Selgin
refers to methods, including action, dialogue, thoughts, summary, scene, and description. While dialogue is the element that brings a story and its characters to life on the page, and narrative gives the story its depth and substance, action creates the movement within a story. Writing a story means weaving all of the elements of fiction together
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