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Babylon
Babylon (𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠KAN4.DIĜIR.RAKI---> Akkadian: Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; Arabic: بَابِل‎, Bābil; Hebrew: בָּבֶל‎, Bavel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ‎, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was originally a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in the nineteenth century BC
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City-state
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance. As of March 2018 only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordin
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,500 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems. The Greek language holds an important place in the history of the Western world and Christianity; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes works in the Western canon such as the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey
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Arabic Language
Arabic (Arabic: اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ‎, al-ʿarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (About this soundlisten) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʿarabīy, [ˈʕarabiː] (About this soundlisten) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic
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Ctesias
Ctesias (/ˈtʒəs/; Ancient Greek: Κτησίας, Ktēsíās), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria
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Classical Syriac Language
Syriac /ˈsɪri.æk/ (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that is the minority language of indigenous ethnic Assyrians/Syriacs in south eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria and North western Iran. It is also the liturgical language of several churches, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox Church, Chaldean Catholic Church and Maronite Church. Emerging in 5th century BC Assyria, it was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Asia Minor and Eastern Arabia. Having first appeared in the early first century AD in Edessa, classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries,, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature
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Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (/hʊˈsn/; Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq. As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces
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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible is known in Judaism as the Tanakh. The New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek
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Herodotus
Herodotus (/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages
Old Persian (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform
Middle Persian (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scriptsManichaean alphabetAvestan alphabet
Modern Persian (from 800) Persian alphabetTajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE). Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE)
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Elamite Language
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great. Elamite is generally thought to have no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate
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Tell (archaeology)
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from Arabic: تَل‎, tall, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years
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