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Babruysk
BABRUYSK, BABRUJSK, or BOBRUISK (Belarusian : Бабру́йск, Łacinka : Babrujsk, Russian : Бобру́йск, Polish : Bobrujsk, Yiddish : באברויסק‎) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus
Belarus
on the Berezina river
Berezina river
. It is a large city in Belarus. As of 2009 , its population was 215,092. The name Babruysk
Babruysk
(as well as that of the Babruyka River ) probably originates from the Belarusian word babyor (бобёр) (beaver ), many of which used to inhabit the Berezina. However, beavers in the area had been almost eliminated by the end of the 19th century due to hunting and pollution. Babruysk
Babruysk
occupies an area of 66 square kilometres (25 sq mi), and comprises over 450 streets whose combined length stretches for over 430 km (267 mi)
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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Trapping (Animal)
ANIMAL TRAPPING, or simply TRAPPING, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade , hunting , pest control , and wildlife management . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Reasons for trapping * 2.1 Fur clothing * 2.2 Perfume * 2.3 Pest control * 2.4 Wildlife management * 2.5 Other reasons * 3 Trap types * 3.1 Leg-hold traps * 3.2 Body gripping/conibear traps * 3.3 Deadfall traps * 3.4 Snares * 3.5 Trapping pit * 3.6 Cage traps (live traps) * 3.7 Cage-trapping squirrels * 3.8 Glue traps * 3.9 Types of sets * 4 Unwanted catches * 5 Controversy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYNeolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine (ca. 5500-2750 BC), used traps to capture their prey
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Castle
A CASTLE (from Latin
Latin
: castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East
Middle East
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by European nobility . Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. This is distinct from a palace , which is not fortified; from a fortress, which was not always a residence for nobility; and from a fortified settlement, which was a public defence – though there are many similarities among these types of construction. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits , were commonplace
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Carpenter
CARPENTRY is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings , ships , timber bridges , concrete formwork , etc. Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. Carpentry in the United States
United States
is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999, and there were about 1.5 million positions in 2006. Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century; now this old fashioned carpentry is called timber framing
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Blacksmith
A BLACKSMITH is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith ). Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons. While there are many people who work with metal such as farriers , wheelwrights, and armorers, the blacksmith had a general knowledge of how to make and repair many things, from the most complex of weapons and armor to simple things like nails or lengths of chain
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Vladimir I, Prince Of Kiev
VLADIMIR THE GREAT (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Old East Slavic : Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove ) was a prince of Novgorod , grand prince of Kiev , and ruler of Kievan Rus\' from 980 to 1015. Vladimir's father was prince Sviatoslav of the Rurik dynasty . After the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgorod , was forced to flee to Scandinavia in 976 after his brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and conquered Rus\' . In Sweden , with the help from his relative Ladejarl Håkon Sigurdsson , ruler of Norway , he assembled a Varangian army and reconquered Novgorod from Yaropolk . By 980, Vladimir had consolidated the Kievan realm from modern-day Belarus , Russia and Ukraine to the Baltic Sea and had solidified the frontiers against incursions of Bulgarian, Baltic tribes and Eastern nomads
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Stone Age
↑ before Homo
Homo
( Pliocene ) Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Lower
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Rahachow
RAHACHOW (Belarusian : Рагачо́ў, pronounced , Łacinka : Rahačoŭ, Russian : Рогачёв, Polish : Rohaczów) is a town in the Gomel Region of Belarus . It is center of Rahachow District . Rahachow is located at 53°6′N 30°3′E / 53.100°N 30.050°E / 53.100; 30.050 , between the Drut and Dnieper rivers. The population is 34,727 (2004 estimate). The town is first mentioned in 1142 in Russian chronicles. From the late thirteenth century it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . In 1772 the Rahachow district was annexed by the Russian Empire . On 16 July 1863 the local landowner Tomasz Hryniewicz was executed here by a Russian firing squad for leading the Rahachow detachment of Polish insurgents
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Visual Arts
The VISUAL ARTS are art forms such as ceramics , drawing , painting , sculpture , printmaking , design , crafts , photography , video , filmmaking , and architecture . Many artistic disciplines (performing arts , conceptual art , textile arts ) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design , graphic design , fashion design , interior design and decorative art . Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts , but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft , craft, or applied art media
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Archaeologists
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Slavs
SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. States with Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area
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Goldsmith
A GOLDSMITH is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals . Historically, goldsmiths also have made silverware , platters , goblets , decorative and serviceable utensils, ceremonial or religious items, and rarely using Kintsugi , but the rising prices of precious metals have curtailed the making of such items to a large degree. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing , soldering , sawing , forging , casting , and polishing metal. The trade has very often included jewellery -making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith . Traditionally, these skills had been passed along through apprenticeships , however, more recently jewellery arts schools specializing solely in teaching goldsmithing and a multitude of skills falling under the jewellery arts umbrella are available
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Partitions Of Poland
The PARTITIONS OF POLAND were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland
Poland
for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Habsburg Austria , which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures. The First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition
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Belarusians
BELARUSIANS (Belarusian : беларусы, biełarusy, or BYELORUSSIANS (from the Byelorussian SSR ), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Languages * 3 History * 4 Cuisine * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Bibliography * 7 External links LOCATION See also: Belarusian diaspora Ethnic territory of Belarusians According to Y. Karskiy (1903) According to M. Dovnar-Zapol\'skiy (1919) Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
Belarus

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Ukrainians
UKRAINIANS (Ukrainian : українці, ukrayintsi, ) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine
Ukraine
, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe
Europe
. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Cossacks
Cossacks
, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people. Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians. The Rusyns are also further divided into subgroups of tribes consisiting of the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Boykos
Boykos
, and Lemkos
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