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Babesia Microti
Theileria
Theileria
microti is a parasitic blood-borne piroplasm transmitted by deer ticks. T. microti is responsible for the disease human theileriosis, similar to babesiosis, a malaria-like disease which also causes fever and hemolysis.Contents1 Life cycle 2 Taxonomy 3 Genomics 4 Vaccine 5 References 6 External linksLife cycle[edit] T. microti lives in red blood cells, and is an important transfusion-transmitted infectious organism. Between 2010 and 2014 it caused four out of fifteen (27%) of transfusion-transmitted microbial infections[where?] (the highest of any single organism).[1] In 2018, the US FDA approved an antibody-based screening test for blood and organ donors.[2] An important difference from malaria is that T. microti does not infect liver cells. Additionally, the piroplasm is spread by tick bites ( Ixodes
Ixodes
scapularis, the same tick that spreads Lyme disease), while the malaria protozoans are spread via mosquito
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Cystoisospora Belli
Isospora belli Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is a parasite that causes an intestinal disease known as cystoisosporiasis.[1] This protozoan parasite is opportunistic in immune suppressed human hosts.[2] It primarily exists in the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and develops in the cell cytoplasm.[2] The distribution of this coccidian parasite is cosmopolitan, but is mainly found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world such as the Caribbean, Central and S. America, India, Africa, and S.E. Asia
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Protozoan Infection
Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa.[1] They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata. Examples include Entamoeba histolytica, Plasmodium
Plasmodium
(some of which cause malaria), and Giardia lamblia.[2] Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by the tsetse fly and the cause of African sleeping sickness, is another example.[3] The species traditionally collectively termed "protozoa" are not closely related to each other, and have only superficial similarities (eukaryotic, unicellular, motile, though with exceptions). The terms "protozoa" (and protist) are usually discouraged in the modern biosciences. However, this terminology is still encountered in medicine
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Archaeplastida
The Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
(or kingdom Plantae
Plantae
sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.[4] The chloroplasts of all these organisms are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In all other groups besides the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. The cells of the Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae
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ICD-10 Chapter I
Contents1 I00–I99 – Diseases of the circulatory system1.1 (I00–I02) Acute rheumatic fever 1.2 (I05–I09) Chronic rheumatic heart diseases 1.3 (I10–I15) Hypertensive diseases 1.4 (I20–I25) Ischemic heart diseases 1.5 (I26–I28) Pulmonary heart disease
Pulmonary heart disease
and diseases of pulmonary circulation 1.6 (I30–I52) Other forms of heart disease1.6.1 Pericardium 1.6.2
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 001–139
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Alveolate
The alveolates (meaning "with cavities")[2] are a group of protists, considered a major clade[3] and superphylum[4] within Eukarya, and are also called Alveolata.[5]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Classification2.1 Phylogeny 2.2 Taxonomy3 Development 4 Evolution 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The most notable shared characteristic is the presence of cortical (outer-region) alveoli (sacs). These are flattened vesicles (sacs) packed into a continuous layer just under the membrane and supporting it, typically forming a flexible pellicle (thin skin). In dinoflagellates they often form armor plates
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Conoidasida
Conoidasida
Conoidasida
is a class of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. The class was defined in 1988 by Levine[1] and contains two subclasses - the coccidia and the gregarines. All members of this class have a complete, hollow, truncated conoid. Gregarines tend to parasitize invertebrates with the mature gamonts being extracellular, the coccidia mostly infect vertebrates and have intracellular gamonts.Contents1 Description1.1 Motility2 External links 3 ReferencesDescription[edit] A conoid is found in most species and when present forms complete but truncated cone. Sexual and asexual reproduction are present in life cycle of all species. Each zygote normally forms an oocyst wall within which it undergoes meiosis. This is sometimes followed by mitosis
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Coccidia
Coccidia
Coccidia
(Coccidiasina) are a subclass of microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the apicomplexan class Conoidasida.[1] As obligate intracellular parasites, they must live and reproduce within an animal cell. Coccidian parasites infect the intestinal tracts of animals,[2] and are the largest group of apicomplexan protozoa. Infection with these parasites is known as coccidiosis. Coccidia
Coccidia
can infect all mammals, some birds, some fish, some reptiles, and some amphibians. Most species of coccidia are species-specific in their host. An exception is Toxoplasma
Toxoplasma
gondii, which can infect all mammals, although it can only undergo sexual reproduction in cats. Depending on the species of coccidia, infection can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, and nervous system effects and changes to behavior, and may lead to death
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Cryptosporidium Hominis
Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium
hominis, along with Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium
parvum, is among the medically important Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium
species.[1] It is an obligate parasite of humans that can colonize the gastrointestinal tract resulting in the gastroenteritis and diarrhea characteristic of cryptosporidiosis. Unlike C. parvum, which has a rather broad host range, C. hominis is almost exclusively a parasite of humans. As a result, C. hominis has a low zoonotic potential compared to C. parvum. It is spread through the fecal-oral route usually by drinking water contaminated with oocyst laden feces.[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Life cycle 3 Treatment 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] C. hominis shares many similar characteristics with C. parvum including identical oocyst morphology and life-cycle. As a result, C. hominis is most easily differentiated from C
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Cryptosporidium Parvum
Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium
parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.[1] Primary symptoms of C. parvum infection are acute, watery, and nonbloody diarrhea. C. parvum infection is of particular concern in immunocompromised patients, where diarrhea can reach 10–15 l per day. Other symptoms may include anorexia, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain. Extra-intestinal sites include the lung, liver, and gall bladder, where it causes respiratory cryptosporidosis, hepatitis, and cholecystitis, respectively.[citation needed] Infection is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts transmitted by the faecal-oral route. In healthy human hosts, the median infective dose is 132 oocysts.[2] The general C. parvum lifecycle is shared by other members of the genus
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Cryptosporidiosis
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto,[1] is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. It affects the distal small intestine and can affect the respiratory tract in both immunocompetent (i.e., individuals with a normal functioning immune system) and immunocompromised (e.g., persons with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
or autoimmune disorders) individuals, resulting in watery diarrhea with or without an unexplained cough.[2] In immunocompromised individuals, the symptoms are particularly severe and can be fatal
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Isosporiasis
Isosporiasis, also known as cystoisosporiasis, is a human intestinal disease caused by the parasite Isospora belli
Isospora belli
(now known as Cystoisospora belli). It is found worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Infection often occurs in immuno-compromised individuals, notably AIDS
AIDS
patients, and outbreaks have been reported in institutionalized groups in the United States. The first documented case was in 1915. It is usually spread indirectly, normally through contaminated food or water (CDC.gov).[1]Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Cause2.1 Transmission 2.2 Life cycle3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Treatment 6 See also 7 ReferencesSigns and symptoms[edit] Infection causes acute, non-bloody diarrhea with crampy abdominal pain, which can last for weeks and result in malabsorption and weight loss. In immunodepressed patients, and in infants and children, the diarrhea can be severe
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Veterinary Parasitology (journal)
Veterinary Parasitology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the discipline of veterinary parasitology. It is the official organ of the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, the European Veterinary Parasitology College, and the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. External links[edit]Official websiteThis article about a zoology journal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eSee tips for writing articles about academic journals
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Cyclospora Cayetanensis
Cyclospora
Cyclospora
cayetanensis is a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps primates. It has been linked in the United States to fecally contaminated imported produce, and was virtually unknown before about 1990, but has been on the rise since. The health risk associated with the disease is usually confined to adult foreigners visiting regions where the species is endemic and acquiring the infection; consequently, C. cayetanensis is a cause of "traveler's diarrhea". This species was placed in the Cyclospora
Cyclospora
genus because of the spherical shape of its sporocysts
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