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Bitnet
BITNET was a co-operative U.S. university computer network founded in 1981 by Ira Fuchs at the City University of New York
City University of New York
(CUNY) and Greydon Freeman, Inc. at Yale University
Yale University
. The first network link was between CUNY and Yale. The name BITNET originally meant "Because It's There Network", but it eventually came to mean "Because It's Time Network". A college or university wishing to join BITNET was required to lease a data circuit (phone line ) from a site to an existing BITNET node , buy modems for each end of the data circuit, sending one to the connecting point site, and allow other institutions to connect to its site free of charge
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Internet Protocol Suite
The INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks . It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the original protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) MODEL, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA
DARPA
. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed , and received
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Persian Gulf
The PERSIAN GULF (Persian : خلیج فارس‎, translit. Xalij-e Fârs, lit. 'Gulf of Fars') is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia . The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
( Gulf of Oman ) through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and lies between Iran
Iran
to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War , in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers . It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War , the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq
Iraq
's invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait

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Text-based
Usually used in reference to a computer application , a TEXT-BASED APPLICATION is one whose primary input and output are based on text rather than graphics or sound. This does not mean that text-based applications do not have graphics or sound, just that the graphics or sound are secondary to the text. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Benefits of text-based software * 3 Limitations of text-based software * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYBefore the 1980s, most computers were text-based. The operator used the keyboard as the main input device to type in necessary commands into the terminal that could only display text on a low-resolution monochrome video monitor . The majority of end-user software was also written in text-based mode during this time. During this era, operating a computer was considered to be a challenging task because of the complexity of the text-based environment
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MAD (MUD)
MAD ("Multi Access Dungeon") was a global MUD
MUD
, similar to MUD1
MUD1
, which ran on "FREMP11", the BITNET node operated by the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris . The MUD
MUD
was developed by Bruno Chabrier and Vincent Lextrait, two students at the school, and began operating in 1984. DESCRIPTION This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) MAD was text-based and entirely written in REXX , a scripting language running on a IBM 4341 using the VM/370 mainframe operating system at the École des Mines de Paris . It made use of a listening utility called "wakeup" developed by one of BITNET aficionados
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Mud
A MUD
MUD
(/ˈmʌd/ ; originally MULTI-USER DUNGEON, with later variants MULTI-USER DIMENSION and MULTI-USER DOMAIN), is a multiplayer real-time virtual world , usually text-based . MUDs combine elements of role-playing games , hack and slash , player versus player , interactive fiction , and online chat . Players can read or view descriptions of rooms, objects, other players, non-player characters , and actions performed in the virtual world. Players typically interact with each other and the world by typing commands that resemble a natural language . Dungeon crawling in a traditional MUD. Traditional MUDs implement a role-playing video game set in a fantasy world populated by fictional races and monsters , with players choosing classes in order to gain specific skills or powers
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European Academic Research Network
The TRANS-EUROPEAN RESEARCH AND EDUCATION NETWORKING ASSOCIATION (TERENA, /təˈreɪnə/ tə-RAY-nə ) was a not-for-profit association of European national research and education networks (NRENs) incorporated in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, The Netherlands. The association was originally formed on 13 June 1986 as Réseaux Associés pour la Recherche Européenne (RARE) and changed its name to TERENA in October 1994. In October 2015, it again changed its name to GÉANT
GÉANT
and at the same time acquired the shares of GEANT Limited (previously known as DANTE). CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 History * 3 Outreach * 4 Task Forces and Projects * 5 Services * 6 Conference * 7 Workshops and Training * 8 References * 9 External links PURPOSEThe objectives of TERENA are to promote and develop high-quality international network infrastructures to support European research and education
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Silicon Graphics
SILICON GRAPHICS, INC. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as SILICON GRAPHICS COMPUTER SYSTEMS or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software . Founded in Mountain View, California
Mountain View, California
in November 1981 by Jim Clark , its initial market was 3D graphics computer workstations , but its products, strategies and market positions developed significantly over time. Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University
Stanford University
, and were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics . The Geometry Engine was the first very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a geometry pipeline , specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images
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Point-to-point (telecommunications)
In telecommunications , a POINT-TO-POINT connection refers to a communications connection between two nodes or endpoints. An example is a telephone call , in which one telephone is connected with one other, and what is said by one caller can only be heard by the other. This is contrasted with a point-to-multipoint or broadcast connection, in which many nodes can receive information transmitted by one node. Other examples of point-to-point communications links are leased lines , microwave relay links, and two way radio . The term is also used in computer networking and computer architecture to refer to a wire or other connection that links only two computers or circuits, as opposed to other network topologies such as buses or crossbar switches which can connect many communications devices. Point-to-point is sometimes abbreviated as P2P
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Store And Forward
STORE AND FORWARD is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available
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UUCPNET
UUCP is an abbreviation of UNIX-TO- UNIX
UNIX
COPY. The term generally refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files , email and netnews between computers . A command named uucp is one of the programs in the suite; it provides a user interface for requesting file copy operations. The UUCP suite also includes uux (user interface for remote command execution), uucico (the communication program that performs the file transfers), uustat (reports statistics on recent activity), uuxqt (execute commands sent from remote machines), and uuname (reports the UUCP name of the local system). Some versions of the suite include uuencode /uudecode (convert 8-bit binary files to 7-bit text format and vice versa)
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University Of Maine
THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE (also referred to as UMAINE, UM or MAINE) is a public research university in Orono, Maine , United States. The university was established in 1865 as a land grant college and is the flagship university of the University of Maine
Maine
System . The University of Maine
Maine
is one of only nine land , sea and space grant institutions in the nation. With an enrollment of approximately 11,000 students, U Maine
Maine
is the state's largest research university and the only institution in Maine classified as a research university (RU/H) by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education . The University of Maine's athletic teams, nicknamed the Black Bears , are Maine's only Division I athletics program
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Christmas Tree EXEC
CHRISTMAS TREE EXEC was the first widely disruptive computer worm , which paralyzed several international computer networks in December 1987. Written by a student at the Clausthal University of Technology
Clausthal University of Technology
in the REXX scripting language, it drew a crude Christmas tree as text graphics , then sent itself to each entry in the target's email contacts file. In this way it spread onto the European Academic Research Network (EARN), the BITNET , and IBM's worldwide VNET . On all of these systems it caused massive disruption. Its core mechanism was essentially the same as the ILOVEYOU worm of 2000—although running on mainframes rather than PCs, spreading over a different network, and scripted using REXX rather than VBScript
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Cable TV
CABLE TELEVISION is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables , or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables . This contrasts with broadcast television , in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio
FM radio
programming, high-speed Internet
Internet
, telephone services , and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" (sometimes known as a "cable network") is a television network available via cable television
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Drums In Communication
Developed and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long-distance communication , and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Talking drum * 1.2 Slit gongs * 1.3 Cambarysu * 2 Drum
Drum
languages * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESTALKING DRUM While this type of hour-glass shaped instrument can be modulated quite closely, its range is limited to a gathering or market-place, and it is primarily used in ceremonial settings. Ceremonial functions could include dance, rituals, story-telling and communication of points of order
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