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BAT99-68
Below is a list of stars arranged in order of decreasing luminosity (increasing bolometric magnitude). Accurate measurement of stellar luminosities is quite difficult in practice, even when the apparent magnitude is measured accurately, for four reasons:The distance d to the star must be known, to convert apparent to absolute magnitude. Absolute magnitude
Absolute magnitude
is the apparent magnitude a star would have if it were 10 parsecs away from the viewer. Since apparent brightness decreases as the square of the distance (i.e. as 1/d2), a small error (e.g. 10%) in determining d implies an error ~2× as large (thus 20%) in luminosity
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List Of Brightest Stars
This is a list of the brightest naked eye stars to +2.50 magnitude, as determined by their maximum, total, or combined apparent visual magnitudes as seen from Earth. Although several of the brightest stars are also known close binary or multiple star systems, they do appear to the naked eye as single stars. The given list below combines/adds the magnitudes of bright individual components. Most of the proper names in this list are those approved by the Working Group on Star Names, and although their usage is recommended, they remain as "preliminary guidelines."[1] (Popular star names here, that have not been approved by the IAU appear with a short note.)Contents1 Measurement 2 Main table 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksMeasurement[edit] Apparent visual magnitudes of the brightest star can also be compared to non-stellar objects in our Solar System
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WR 42e
WR 42e (2MASS J11144550-115001) is a Wolf-Rayet star in the massive H II region NGC 3603 in the constellation of the Carina. It is around 25,000 light years or 7,600 parsec from the Sun. WR 42e is one of the most massive and most luminous stars known. WR 42e was first catalogued in 2004 as a member of NGC 3603, numbered 954. It was noted as having x-ray and Hα emission.[6] A detailed study published in 2012 showed that the faint red star was actually a highly obscured (6.4 magnitudes in the visual) hot blue Wolf Rayet star and gave it the name WR 42e.[2] Subsequent changes to the naming conventions for new galactic Wolf Rayet stars mean it is also called WR 42-1.[5] WR 42e is located 2.7 arcmin west-northwest of the massive open cluster HD 97950 at the heart of NGC 3603,[4] corresponding to 6 parsecs at the distance of NGC 3603.[2] This is outside the compact core of the cluster where similar massive luminous stars are found
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Star
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth
Earth
is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth
Earth
during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations
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Carina Nebula
Coordinates: 10h 45m 08.5s, −59° 52′ 04″ The Carina Nebula
Carina Nebula
(catalogued as NGC 3372; also known as the Grand Nebula, Great Nebula in Carina, or Eta Carinae
Eta Carinae
Nebula) is a large, complex area of bright and dark nebulosity in the constellation Carina, and is located in the Carina–Sagittarius Arm. The nebula lies at an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light-years (2,000 and 3,100 pc) from Earth. The nebula has within its boundaries the large Carina OB1
Carina OB1
association and several related open clusters, including numerous O-type stars and several Wolf–Rayet stars. Carina OB1
Carina OB1
encompasses the star clusters Trumpler 14
Trumpler 14
and Trumpler 16. Trumpler 14
Trumpler 14
is one of the youngest known star clusters at half a million years old
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NGC 2363-V1
NGC 2363-V1 is a luminous blue variable star in the star-forming region NGC 2363, situated at the far southwestern part of the irregular galaxy NGC 2366 in the constellation Camelopardalis, near the North Celestial Pole. It was discovered in 1996 by Laurent Drissen, Jean-Rene Roy, and Carmelle Robert while examining images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.[1] NGC 2363-V1 is one of the most luminous stars known. It has been undergoing an increase in temperature and luminosity for the last 20 years, after a dramatic increase in its mass loss. Significant luminosity variations are very rare in LBVs, with the best example being Eta Carinae during its Great Eruption, but NGC 2363-V1 currently shows an extreme B hypergiant spectrum similar to P Cygni rather than the cool Eta Carinae outburst spectrum.[1][2] References[edit]^ a b c d e f g Drissen, Laurent; Roy, Jean-René; Robert, Carmelle (1997)
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Eta Carinae
Coordinates: 10h 45m 03.591s, −59° 41′ 04.26″Eta CarinaeThe Homunculus Nebula, surrounding Eta Carinae, imaged by WFPC2 at red and near-ultraviolet wavelengths Credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado) & NASA
NASA
Hubble Space TelescopeObservation data Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000Constellation CarinaRight ascension 10h 45m 03.591s[1]Declination −59° 41′ 04.26″[1]Apparent magnitude (V) −1.0 to ~7.6[2]CharacteristicsSpectral type variable[3] + O[4][5]Apparent magnitude (U) 6.37[6]Appar
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V4998 Sagittarii
V4998 Sagittarii is a luminous blue variable star (LBV) in the constellation of Sagittarius. Located some 25,000 light years away, the star is positioned ~7 pc (~23 ly) away from a starburst cluster known as the Quintuplet cluster.[2] It has an ejection nebula measuring over 0.8 pc in diameter, formed 5000-10,000 years ago through large eruptions.[3] The star has a large mass comparable to the Pistol star and a luminosity of ~4,000,000 times the Sun (L☉).[3] This places the star as one of the most massive and luminous stars known.Contents1 Observational History 2 Characteristics 3 Evolution 4 ReferencesObservational History[edit]Quintuplet cluster region centred on the Pistol Star, with V4998 Sgr at top rightThe star was first discovered in a 1993 survey that searched for bright near-infrared sources within 0.55°2 of the Galactic Centre. The survey used 1–20 micron photometry and used a two channel InSb detector on the 1 meter ANU telescope in Australia
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Quintuplet Cluster
The Quintuplet cluster
Quintuplet cluster
is a dense cluster of massive young stars about 100 light years from the Galactic Center
Galactic Center
(GC). Its name comes from the fact it has five prominent infrared sources residing in it. Along with the Arches cluster
Arches cluster
it is one of two in the immediate GC region
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WR 102ka
WR 102ka, also known as the Peony star,[4] is a Wolf-Rayet star that is one of several candidates for the most luminous known star in the Milky Way. An even more luminous yet closer star, WR 25, appears to be most likely to the title. Another nearer star Eta Carinae, which was the second brightest star in the sky for a few years in the 19th century, appears to be slightly more luminous than WR 102ka, but is known to be a binary star system
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LSS 4067
LSS 4067, also known as CD−38° 11748, is an O-type blue supergiant star located in the constellation Scorpius, very close to the galactic plane. It is part of the open cluster HM 1,[8] although its distance is not well known; it may be anywhere between 9,500 and 12,700 light years (2900 to 3900 parsecs) away from the Earth. Despite being a blue supergiant, it is extremely reddened by interstellar extinction, so its apparent magnitude is brighter for longer-wavelength passbands.[2] LSS 4067 has an absolute bolometric magnitude of −11.4,[7] making it one of the most luminous stars known
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Large Magellanic Cloud
The Large Magellanic Cloud
Large Magellanic Cloud
(LMC) is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.[5] At a distance of 50 kiloparsecs (≈163,000 light-years),[2][6][7][8] the LMC is the third-closest galaxy to the Milky Way, after the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (~ 16 kpc) and the putative Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy
Galaxy
(~ 12.9 kpc, though its status as a galaxy is under dispute), lying close to the Galactic Center. The LMC has a diameter of about 14,000 light-years (4.3 kpc) based on readily visible stars and a mass of approximately 10 billion solar masses, making it roughly 1/100 as massive as the Milky Way.[3] Based on this, the LMC is the fourth-largest galaxy in the Local Group, after the Andromeda Galaxy
Galaxy
(M31), the Milky Way, and the Triangulum Galaxy
Galaxy
(M33)
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NGC 3603-B
NGC 3603-B (HD 97950B) is a Wolf-Rayet star located at the centre of the HD 97950 cluster in the NGC 3603 star-forming region, about 20,000 light years from Earth. It has the spectral type WN6h and is among the most luminous and most massive stars known. HD 97950 was catalogued as a star, but was known to be a dense cluster or close multiple star. In 1926, the six brightest members were given letters from A to F,[4] although several of them have since been resolved into more than one star. Star B turned out to be the brightest single star.[5] HD 97950B is a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, with spectra dominated by strong broadened emission lines. Type WN6 indicates that ionised nitrogen lines are strong in comparison to ionised carbon lines, and the suffix h indicates that hydrogen is also seen in the spectrum
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WR 102hb
The Quintuplet cluster is a dense cluster of massive young stars about 100 light years from the Galactic Center (GC). Its name comes from the fact it has five prominent infrared sources residing in it. Along with the Arches cluster it is one of two in the immediate GC region
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AFGL 2298
AFGL 2298, also known as IRAS 18576+0341, is a luminous blue variable star (LBV) located in the constellation Aquila, very close to the galactic plane. Its distance is not well known; it may be anywhere between 7004230000000000000♠23000 and 7004420000000000000♠42000 light years (7000 to 13000 parsecs) away from the Earth.[2] Despite being extremely luminous, it is extremely reddened by interstellar extinction, so its apparent magnitude is brighter for longer-wavelength passbands; in fact, in visual wavelengths it is completely undetectable.[6] AFGL 2298 has an absolute bolometric magnitude of −11.25,[5] making it one of the most luminous stars known. Indeed, many of the hottest and most luminous stars known are luminous blue variables and other early-type stars
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WR 102ea
WR 102ea
WR 102ea
is a Wolf–Rayet star
Wolf–Rayet star
in the Sagittarius constellation. It is the second most luminous star in the Quintuplet cluster
Quintuplet cluster
after WR 102hb. With a luminosity of 2,500,000 times solar, it is also one of the most luminous stars known. Despite the high luminosity it can only be observed at infra-red wavelengths due to the dimming effect of intervening dust on visual light. It is an evolved massive star which has an emission line spectrum from a strong stellar wind caused by high luminosity and the presence of elements heavier than hydrogen in the photosphere
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