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B. Thuringiensis
Bacillus
Bacillus
thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide. B. thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well on leaf surfaces, aquatic environments, animal feces, insect-rich environments, and flour mills and grain-storage facilities.[1][2] It has also been observed to parasitize other moths such as Cadra calidella—in laboratory experiments working with C. calidella, many of the moths were diseased due to this parasite.[3] During sporulation, many Bt strains produce crystal proteins (proteinaceous inclusions), called δ-endotoxins, that have insecticidal action
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(/ˌlɛpɪˈdɒptərə/ lep-i-DOP-tər-ə) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
are described, in 126 families[1] and 46 superfamilies,[2] 10% of the total described species of living organisms.[2][3] It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world.[4] The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution
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Ephestia Kuehniella
The Mediterranean flour moth
Mediterranean flour moth
or mill moth ( Ephestia
Ephestia
kuehniella)[1] is a moth of the family Pyralidae.[2] It is a common pest of cereal grains, especially flour. This moth is found throughout the world, especially in countries with temperate climates.[3] It prefers warm temperatures for more rapid development, but it can survive a wide range of temperatures.[3] The Mediterranean flour moth
Mediterranean flour moth
is frequently found in warm places with stored grain products, such as flour mills and bakeries, where it can breed year round. Flour
Flour
mills have a particular problem with the Mediterranean flour moth
Mediterranean flour moth
because the caterpillars spin silk that clogs machinery
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Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia
Thuringia
(English: /θəˈrɪndʒiə/; German: Freistaat Thüringen, pronounced [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈtyːʁɪŋən]) is a federal state in central Germany. It has an area of 16,171 square kilometres (6,244 sq mi) and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. Most of Thuringia
Thuringia
is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe. The capital is Erfurt. Thuringia
Thuringia
has been known as "the green heart of Germany" (das grüne Herz Deutschlands) from the late 19th century,[3] due to the dense forest covering the land. It is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most well-known hiking trail, and the winter resort of Oberhof making it a well known winter sports destination
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Specific Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen). The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description.Example The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens, which is the species name, consisting of two names: Homo is the "generic name" (the name of the genus) and sapiens is the "specific name".The grammar of species names[edit] Grammatically, a binomen (and a trinomen, also) must be treated as if it were a Latin
Latin
phrase, no matter which language the words were originally taken from
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Anthrax Disease
Anthrax
Anthrax
is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis.[2] It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection.[9] Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted.[1] The skin form presents with a small blister with s
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Plasmid
A plasmid is a small DNA
DNA
molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA
DNA
and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Aerobe
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.[1] In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present.[2]Contents1 Types 2 Glucose 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes[edit]Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow
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Endospore
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute
Firmicute
phylum.[1][2] The name "endospore" is suggestive of a spore or seed-like form (endo means within), but it is not a true spore (i.e., not an offspring). It is a stripped-down, dormant form to which the bacterium can reduce itself. Endospore
Endospore
formation is usually triggered by a lack of nutrients, and usually occurs in gram-positive bacteria. In endospore formation, the bacterium divides within its cell wall. One side then engulfs the other. Endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods, even centuries. There are many reports of spores remaining viable over 10,000 years, and revival of spores millions of years old has been claimed
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Proteinaceous
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Δ-endotoxin
Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins, also called Cry and Cyt toxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria. They are useful for their insecticidal action and are the primary toxin produced by Bt corn. During spore formation the bacteria produce crystals of this protein. When an insect ingests these proteins, they are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The N-terminus is cleaved in all of the proteins and a C-terminal extension is cleaved in some members. Once activated, the endotoxin binds to the gut epithelium and causes cell lysis by the formation of cation-selective channels, which leads to death
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Diptera
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings". Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings having evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs known as halteres, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow dipterans to perform advanced aerobatics.[1] Diptera
Diptera
is a large order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies,[a] crane flies, hoverflies and others, although only about 125,000 species have been described.[4] Flie
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Ernst Berliner
Ernst Berliner (15 September 1880–October 1957) was a German scientist with contributions to microbiology, entomology, and biochemistry. Life and career[edit] Ernst Berliner was born in Berlin to Albrecht Berliner and Hedwig (née Koppen). He attended the Humboldt Gymnasium, which he left in 1901 with his Abitur. From 1900 to 1904 he studied engineering at the Royal Technical Institute Charlottenburg following which he studied natural sciences at the Frederick William University (now the Humboldt University of Berlin) until 1908, with Oscar Hertwig, Rudolf Virchow (?), Ludwig Plate, Warburg, Fritz Schaudinn, Max Hartmann, Franz Eilhard Schulze, and Wilhelm von Branca. Afterwards he was active scientifically at the Zoological Institute of the University and the Robert Koch Institute. On 8 May 1909 he received a Dr. phil
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Coleoptera
See subgroups of the order ColeopteraBeetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings is hardened into wing-cases, elytra, distinguishing them from most other insects. The Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms; new species are discovered frequently. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(weevils) with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. They are found in almost every habitat except the sea and the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates
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Hymenoptera
Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
have been described,[2][3] in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones.[4] Females typically have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible. The ovipositor is often modified into a stinger
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