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Ayyubid Dynasty
The AYYUBID DYNASTY (Arabic : الأيوبيون‎‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish : خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centered in Egypt
Egypt
. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din
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Sudan
SUDAN ( Arabic
Arabic
: السودان‎‎ as-Sūdān, English pronunciation (US) /suˈdæn/ ( listen ), (GB) /suːˈdɑːn/ ), also known as NORTH SUDAN since South Sudan
South Sudan
's independence and officially the REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN ( Arabic
Arabic
: جمهورية السودان‎‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northern Africa
Africa
. It is bordered by Egypt
Egypt
to the north, the Red Sea
Red Sea
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the east, South Sudan
South Sudan
to the south, the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to the southwest, Chad
Chad
to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar
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Saudi Arabia
SAUDI ARABIA (/ˌsɔːdi əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen ), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA), is a sovereign Arab
Arab
state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula . With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia
Asia
and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
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State Of Palestine
Coordinates : 32°00′N 35°15′E / 32.000°N 35.250°E / 32.000; 35.250 State of Palestine
State of Palestine
دولة فلسطين ( Arabic
Arabic
) Dawlat Filasṭīn Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "فدائي" "Fida\'i " "My Redemption" Territor
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Dinar
The DINAR is a main currency unit in modern circulation in seven mostly- Islamic
Islamic
and two mostly-Orthodox ( Serbia
Serbia
and Macedonia ) countries, and has historic use in several more. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Legal tender * 2.1 Countries currently using a currency called "dinar" or similar * 2.2 Countries and regions which have previously used a currency called "dinar" * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Silver dinar from the reign of Serbian king Stefan Uroš I (1243–1276). The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار (dīnār), which was borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον (denárion), itself from the Latin dēnārius , a small silver coin in the Ancient Roman coinage
Ancient Roman coinage
, first minted about 211 BC
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Lebanon
Coordinates : 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833 Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية ( Arabic
Arabic
) al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * كلّنا للوطن * Kulluna lil-watan * All Of Us, For the Country! Capital and largest city Beirut
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Tunisia
TUNISIA ( Arabic
Arabic
: تونس‎‎ Tūnis ; Berber : ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tunes; French : Tunisie), officially the REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA (Arabic : الجمهورية التونسية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya ; Berber : ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tagduda n tunes) is a country in North Africa
Africa
, covering 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 square miles). Its northernmost point, Cape Angela , is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria
Algeria
to the west and southwest, Libya
Libya
to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis
Tunis
, which is located on Tunisia's northeast coast
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Cyrenaica
CYRENAICA (/saɪrᵻˈneɪ.ᵻkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ə-kə ; Ancient Greek : Κυρηναϊκή Kyrēnaïkḗ, after the city of Cyrene ; Arabic : برقة‎‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya
Libya
. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity , it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete and Cyrenaica
Crete and Cyrenaica
, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca . Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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Middle Kingdom Of Egypt
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology)
Kingdom (biology)
, a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE *
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Nubia
NUBIA is a region along the Nile
Nile
rivers encompassing the areas between what is today central Sudan
Sudan
and southern Egypt
Egypt
. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa
Africa
, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 B.C. onward (through Nubian monuments and artifacts, as well as written records from Egypt and Rome), and was home to one of the African empires . There was a number of large Nubian kingdoms throughout the Postclassical Era , the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia
Nubia
became divided between Egypt
Egypt
and the Sennar sultanate , resulting in the Arabization of much of the Nubian population
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Transjordan (region)
TRANSJORDAN, the EAST BANK, or the TRANSJORDANIAN HIGHLANDS (Arabic : شرق الأردن‎‎), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River , mostly contained in present-day Jordan
Jordan
. The region, known as Transjordan, was controlled by numerous powers throughout history. During the early modern era, the region of Transjordan was included under jurisdiction of Ottoman Syrian provinces. During World War I, Transjordan region was taken by the British, who had temporarily included it in OETA . Initially, the area was directly governed by the British, who decided to divide Transjordan region into 3 administrative districts – Ajloun, Balqa and Karak, with only Ma'an and Tabuk granted under direct rule of the Hashemites; however shortly the Hashemite ruler Abdullah was granted nominal rule over all districts
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Upper Mesopotamia
UPPER MESOPOTAMIA is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq
Iraq
, northeastern Syria
Syria
and southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, in the northern Middle East
Middle East
. This region (together with northeastern Iraq) is approximately correspondent with what was Assyria
Assyria
from the 25th century BC through to the mid-7th century AD. After the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest of the mid-7th century AD the region has been known by the traditional Arabic
Arabic
name of AL-JAZIRA ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجزيرة‎‎ "the island"), also transliterated Djazirah, Djezirah, Jazirah, which derives from the earlier Syriac (Aramaic) variant Gazerṯo or Gozarto (ܓܙܪܬܐ)
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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Libya
LIBYA ( Arabic
Arabic
: ليبيا‎‎ Lībiyā) is a country in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa
North Africa
, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger to the south and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west
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