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Aymara People
The Aymara or Aimara (Aymara: aymara  listen (help·info)) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes
Andes
and Altiplano
Altiplano
regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru
Peru
and Chile. Their ancestors lived in the region for many centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca in the late 15th or early 16th century, and later of the Spanish in the 16th century. With the Spanish American Wars of Independence (1810–25), the Aymaras became subjects of the new nations of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru
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Coca
Coca
Coca
is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant is grown as a cash crop in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, even in areas where its cultivation is unlawful.[2] There are some reports that the plant is being cultivated in the south of Mexico
Mexico
as a cash crop and an alternative to smuggling its recreational product cocaine.[3] It also plays a role in many traditional Andean cultures as well as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (see Traditional uses). Coca
Coca
is known throughout the world for its psychoactive alkaloid, cocaine. The alkaloid content of coca leaves is relatively low, between 0.25% and 0.77%.[4] The native people use it for a stimulant, like coffee, or an energy source or both
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Cocaine
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.[10] It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into a vein.[9] Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation.[9] Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils.[9] High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature.[11] Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes.[9] Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.[12] Cocaine
Cocaine
is
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Chilenization Of Tacna, Arica And Tarapacá
Chilenization of Tacna, Arica and Tarapacá describes a process of forced transculturation or acculturation in the zones (Tacna, Arica and Tarapacá) which were invaded and incorporated by Chile since the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). The aim of the Chilenization was to create a dominance of Chilean traditions and culture in that region, in preference to those of the Peruvian population. The British desire to reunite all saltpeter mines under one political administration was also a major factor that influenced the outcome of the war.[1] After the failure of Chile to ratify the Billinghurst-Latorre protocol, Chile began in the provinces of Tacna and Arica a policy which has been called "Chilenization"
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Poncho
A poncho (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpontʃo]; punchu in Quechua; Mapudungun
Mapudungun
pontro, blanket, woolen fabric)[1][2][3] is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm. A rain poncho is made from a watertight material designed to keep the body dry from the rain. Ponchos have been used by the Native American peoples of the Andes since pre-Hispanic time, from places now under the territory of Bolivia, Peru, and are now considered typical South American garments.Contents1 Types of ponchos1.1 Traditional ponchos 1.2 Military ponchos2 Trivia 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes of ponchos[edit] In its simplest form the poncho is essentially a single large sheet of fabric with an opening in the center for the head and often it has an extra piece of fabric serving as a hood
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Inti
Inti
Inti
is the ancient Incan sun god. He is revered as the national patron of the Inca
Inca
state. Although most consider Inti
Inti
the sun god, he is more appropriately viewed as a cluster of solar aspects, since the Inca
Inca
divided his identity according to the stages of the sun.[1] Worshiped as a patron deity of the Inca
Inca
Empire,[2] Pachacuti
Pachacuti
is often linked to the origin and expansion of the Inca
Inca
Sun Cult.[3][4]
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Incas
The Inca Empire
Empire
(Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as the Incan Empire
Empire
and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[4] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[5] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one,[1][2] "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba[3] [4] sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization. His original name was Tito Husi Hualpa.[5] He was the successor to Topa Inca Yupanqui.[6]:108Contents1 Background and family 2 Political and military career 3 Death and legacy 4 Lost mummy 5 References 6 Further readingBackground and family[edit] The exact date of Huayna Capac's birth are unknown; it may have been in 1468, in Tumebamba
Tumebamba
(modern Cuenca) where he also may have spent part of his childhood, but then raised in Cuzco. He was the son of Topa Inca
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Lake Titicaca
Lake
Lake
Titicaca (Spanish: Lago Titicaca, Quechua: Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes
Andes
on the border of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America.[2][3][4] Lake
Lake
Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay, not a lake. It is often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world, with a surface elevation of 3,812 metres (12,507 ft).[5][6] Although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2,200-ton, 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta
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Spanish American Wars Of Independence
Independentist states victoryEnd of the majority of Spanish rule in the Americas.Territorial changes Spain loses dominion over most of its American possessions, retaining only the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.Belligerents Monarchy
Monarchy
of Spain: Spain Spanish AmericaViceroyalty of New Spain Viceroyalty of Peru Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of New GranadaHispanic American Independentists: United Provinces of the Río de la Plata Chile Venezuela Gran ColombiaAfter 1820: Free Province of Guayaquil Mexican Empire
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Lake Poopó
Lake Poopó (Spanish: Lago Poopó Spanish: [ˈlaɣo po.oˈpo]) is a large saline lake located in a shallow depression in the Altiplano Mountains in Oruro Department, Bolivia, at an altitude of approximately 3,700 m (12,100 ft). Because the lake was long and wide (90 by 32 km, 56 by 20 mi), it made up the eastern half of the department, known as a mining region in southwest Bolivia. The permanent part of the lake body covered approximately 1,000 square kilometres (390 sq mi) and it was the second-largest lake in the country.[1] The lake received most of its water from the Desaguadero River, which flows from Lake Titicaca at the north end of the Altiplano
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Desaguadero River (Bolivia)
The Desaguadero River
Desaguadero River
in Bolivia
Bolivia
drains Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
from the southern part of the river basin, flowing south and draining approximately five percent of the lake's flood waters into Lake Uru Uru and Lake Poopó.[1] Its source in the north is very near the Peruvian border. It is navigable only by small craft and supports indigenous communities such as the Uru Muratu community. See also[edit]Awallamaya Lake Desaguadero River
Desaguadero River
from Argentina.Notes[edit]^ " Desaguadero River
Desaguadero River
(river, Bolivia)"
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Oruro, Bolivia
Oruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uru Uru[1] is a city in Bolivia
Bolivia
with a population of 264,683 (2012 calculation),[2] about halfway between La Paz
La Paz
and Sucre
Sucre
in the Altiplano, approximately 3,709 meters (12,169 ft) above sea level. It is Bolivia's fifth-largest city by population, after Santa Cruz de la Sierra, El Alto, La Paz, and Cochabamba. It is the capital of the department of Oruro and the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oruro. Oruro has been subject to cycles of boom and bust owing to its dependence on the mining industry, notably tin, tungsten (wolfram), silver and copper.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Culture and education 4 Climate 5 Main attractions 6 Education 7 Twin cities 8 Notable people from Oruro 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] The city was founded on November 1, 1606, by Don Manuel Castro de Padilla
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John Murra
John Victor Murra (24 August 1916 – 16 October 2006), born Isak Lipschitz in Odessa, Russian Empire, was a professor of anthropology and a researcher of the Inca Empire. Biography[edit] He emigrated to the United States in 1934. Two years later he fought in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the Republic. He completed an undergraduate degree in sociology at the University of Chicago, and at the same university finished a master's in 1942 and a Ph.D. in 1956, both in anthropology. He taught at the University of Puerto Rico (1947–50), Vassar College (1950–61), Yale (1962–63), Universidad de San Marcos (1964–66), and Cornell University (1968–82). His work included the development of a new perspective of the Inca Empire, where trade and gift-giving among kin were common
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Chucuito
Coordinates: 15°53′38″S 69°53′20″W / 15.89389°S 69.88889°W / -15.89389; -69.88889Side entrance of the Church of the Assumption in Chucuito. Chucuito
Chucuito
is a village in the Chucuito
Chucuito
District, Puno
Puno
Province, Peru. It is 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the city of Puno. It sits at 3,875 metres (12,713 ft) above sea level.[1] The population is 7,913.[2] Gallery[edit]The church in ChucuitoIn front of the Church of the Assumption in ChucuitoBeheaded sculpturesChurch in ChucuitoThe interior of the church in ChucuitoReferences[edit]^ INEI Archived January 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ 2007 CensusExternal links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chucuito.Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chucuito.This Puno
Puno
Region geography article is a stub
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