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Aylesbury Vale
The AYLESBURY VALE (or VALE OF AYLESBURY) is a large area of gently rolling agricultural landscape located in the northern half of Buckinghamshire , England . Its boundary is marked by Milton Keynes to the north, Leighton Buzzard and the Chiltern Hills to the east and south, Thame to the south and Bicester and Brackley to the west. The vale is named after Aylesbury , the county town of Buckinghamshire. Two other towns lie within the vale and they are Winslow and Buckingham . The bed of the vale is largely made up of clay that was formed at the end of the ice age . Also at this time the vast underground reserves of water that make the water table in the Vale of Aylesbury higher than average, were created
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UTC+1
UTC+01:00 is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This time is used in: * Central European Time
Central European Time
* West Africa Time
West Africa Time
* Western European Summer Time * British Summer Time
British Summer Time
* Irish Standard Time * Romance Standard Time (Microsoft Windows Control panel) * Swatch Internet Time
Swatch Internet Time
* EVE Online
EVE Online
In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T12:06:10+01:00
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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS CODES or GSS CODES referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out
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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude . It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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UTC0
UTC±00:00 is the following time: * Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC), the basis for the world's civil time. * Western European Time (Ireland , Portugal
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Leighton Buzzard
LEIGHTON BUZZARD (/ˈleɪtən ˈbʌzəd/ ) is a town in Bedfordshire , England near the Chiltern Hills and lying between Luton and Milton Keynes . It adjoins Linslade and the name Leighton Linslade is sometimes used to refer to the combination of the two towns; parts of this article also apply to Linslade as well as Leedon . For local government purposes, the town is part of the Central Bedfordshire district and is administered jointly with Linslade as the civil parish of Leighton-Linslade
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Chiltern Hills
The CHILTERN HILLS form a chalk escarpment in South East England . They are known locally as "the Chilterns". A large portion of the hills was designated officially as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1965. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Geology * 3 Physical characteristics * 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Landscape and land use * 3.3 Rivers * 3.4 Transport routes * 4 History * 5 Settlement * 5.1 List of towns and villages in the Chiltern hills area * 5.2 Strip parishes associated with the Chilterns * 6 Economic use * 7 Protection * 7.1 Chilterns Conservation Board * 7.2 High Speed Rail 2 * 8 Chiltern Hundreds * 9 The Chilterns in popular culture * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links LOCATIONThe Chilterns cover an area of 833 km2 (322 sq mi)
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Census
A CENSUS is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population . The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses ; other common censuses include agriculture, business, and traffic censuses. The United Nations
United Nations
defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations
United Nations
recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, classifications and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice
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Clay
CLAY is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter . Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to their water content and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing . Depending on the soil\'s content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500 Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts , which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, however, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties
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Ice Age
An ICE AGE is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth
Earth
's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers . Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods " (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials ". In the terminology of glaciology , ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene
Holocene
—of the ice age
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County Town
A COUNTY TOWN is usually the location of administrative or judicial functions within the county , or it has been established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its original meaning of where the county administration or county hall is based. In fact, many county towns are no longer part of the administrative county. For example, Nottingham
Nottingham
is administered by a unitary authority entirely separate from the rest of Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
. Many county towns are classified as cities , but all are referred to as county towns regardless of whether city status is held or not
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Brackley
BRACKLEY is a town in south Northamptonshire , England. It is about 19 miles (31 km) from Oxford and about 22 miles (35 km) from Northampton . Historically a market town based on the wool and lace trade, it was built on the intersecting trade routes between London, Birmingham and the English Midlands and between Cambridge and Oxford. Brackley has connections with Formula 1 as it is close to Silverstone and home to the Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team
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Thame
THAME /teɪm/ is a market town and civil parish in Oxfordshire , about 9 miles (14 km) east of the city of Oxford and 7 miles (11 km) southwest of the Buckinghamshire town of Aylesbury . It derives its toponym from the River Thame which flows along the north side of the town. The parish includes the hamlet of Moreton south of the town. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 11,561. Thame was founded in the Anglo-Saxon era and was in the kingdom of Wessex . CONTENTS * 1 Abbey, parish church and prebendal * 2 Social and economic history * 3 Economy * 4 Amenities "> St Mary the Virgin parish church Thame Abbey was founded in 1138 for the Cistercian Order: the abbey church was consecrated in 1145. In the 16th century Dissolution of the Monasteries the abbey was suppressed and the church demolished
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