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Ave Maris Stella
"Ave Maris Stella" (Latin, "Hail Star of the Sea") is a plainsong Vespers
Vespers
hymn to Mary from about the eighth century. It was especially popular in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and has been used by many composers as the basis of other compositions.Contents1 Background 2 Latin
Latin
lyrics 3 Musical settings 4 Acadian
Acadian
anthem 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] The creation of the original hymn has been attributed to several people, including Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(12th century), Saint Venantius Fortunatus (6th century)[1] and Hermannus Contractus
Hermannus Contractus
(11th century).[2] The text is found in 9th-century manuscripts, kept in Vienna[3] and in the Abbey of Saint Gall
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Antiphonary
An Antiphonary
Antiphonary
is one of the liturgical books intended for use in choro (i. e. in the liturgical choir), and originally characterized, as its name implies, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy. In current usage Antiphoner refers more narrowly to books containing the chants for the Divine Office in distinction to the Gradual
Gradual
(Graduale or more rarely antiphonarium Missarum), which contains the antiphons used for the Mass.[1] The discussion below is almost entirely drawn from the 1908 article in the Catholic Encyclopedia
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Liturgy Of The Hours
The Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgy of the Hours
(Latin: Liturgia Horarum) or Divine Office (Latin: Officium Divinum) or Work of God (Latin: Opus Dei) or canonical hours,[a] often referred to as the Breviary,[b] is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer".[3] It consists primarily of psalms supplemented by hymns, readings and other prayers and antiphons
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Little Office Of The Blessed Virgin Mary
The Little Office of Our Lady also known as Hours of the Virgin is a liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, in imitation of, and usually in addition to, the Divine Office in the Roman Catholic Church. It is a cycle of psalms, hymns, scripture and other readings. All of the daily variation occurs in Matins. The text of the other offices remains the same from day to day in the Roman rite and most other rites. In the Roman rite there are seasonal variations in Advent and Christmastide. The Gospel antiphons also change in Eastertide, although there are no other changes during that season. The Little Office was a core text of the medieval book of hours.Contents1 History 2 Post Vatican II 3 Trivia 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]French - Leaf from Book of Hours - about 1460, Walters Art MuseumThe Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary probably originated as a monastic devotion around the middle of the eighth century
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Seven Joys Of The Virgin
Virginity
Virginity
is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.[1][2] There are cultural and religious traditions that place special value and significance on this state, predominantly towards unmarried females, associated with notions of personal purity, honor and worth. Like chastity, the concept of virginity has traditionally involved sexual abstinence
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Lo, How A Rose E'er Blooming
"Es ist ein Ros entsprungen" (lit., "A rose has sprung up"), is a Christmas
Christmas
carol and Marian Hymn
Hymn
of German origin. It is most commonly translated in English as Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming, and sometimes as A Spotless Rose. The rose in the text is a symbolic reference to the Virgin Mary, and the hymn makes reference to the Old Testament prophecies of Isaiah
Isaiah
which in Christian interpretation foretell the Incarnation of Christ, and to the Tree of Jesse, a traditional symbol of the lineage of Jesus. Because of its prophetic theme, the song is popular during the Christian season of Advent.[1][2] The hymn has its roots in an unknown author prior to the 17th century. It first appeared in print in 1599 and has since been published with a varying number of verses and in several different translations
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Mary, Mother Of Grace
A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child(ren), supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof. Such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women
Women
who meet the third and first categories usually fall under the terms 'birth mother' or 'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child
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Hail Mary Of Gold
Hail
Hail
is a form of solid precipitation. It is distinct from ice pellets (American sleet), though the two are often confused.[1] It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is called a hailstone. Ice
Ice
pellets (American sleet) fall generally in cold weather while hail growth is greatly inhibited during cold surface temperatures.[2] Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between 5 millimetres (0.2 in) and 15 centimetres (6 in) in diameter. The METAR reporting code for hail 5 mm (0.20 in) or greater is GR, while smaller hailstones and graupel are coded GS. Hail
Hail
is possible within most thunderstorms as it is produced by cumulonimbus,[3] and within 2 nautical miles (3.7 km) of the parent storm
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Antiphons
An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christian
Christian
ritual, sung as a refrain. Antiphons are Psalm-texted. Their form was favored by St Ambrose
Ambrose
and so they feature prominently in Ambrosian chant, but they occur widely in Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
as well. They may be used during Mass, for the Introit, the Offertory
Offertory
or the Communion. They may also be used in the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Hours, typically for Lauds or Vespers. They should not be confused with Marian antiphons or processional antiphons. A refrain is needed when a chant consists of alternating verses (usually sung by a cantor) and responds (usually sung by the congregation). The looser term antiphony is generally used for any call and response style of singing, such as the kirtan or the sea shanty
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Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
(born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618 – April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque
Baroque
painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times.Contents1 Childhood 2 Career 3 Legacy 4 Public collections 5 Selected works 6 References 7 Literature 8 External linksChildhood[edit] Murillo was born to Gaspar Esteban and María Pérez.[1] He may have been born in Seville
Seville
or in Pilas, a smaller Andalusian town.[2] It is clear that he was baptized in Seville
Seville
in 1618, the youngest son in a family of fourteen. His father was a barber and surgeon
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Adam And Eve
Adam
Adam
and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions,[1][2] were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors.[3] It also provides the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity, although not held in Judaism
Judaism
or Islam.[4] In the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
of the Hebrew Bible, chapters one through five, there are two creation narratives with two distinct perspectives. In the first, Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are not mentioned (at least not mentioned by name). Instead, God created humankind in God's image and instructed them to multiply and to be stewards over everything else that God had made
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Roman Rite
The Roman Rite
Roman Rite
(Ritus Romanus)[1] is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite
Roman Rite
gradually became the predominant rite used by the Western Church
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Cantus Firmus
In music, a cantus firmus ("fixed song") is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition. The plural of this Latin term is cantus firmi, although the corrupt form canti firmi (resulting from the grammatically incorrect treatment of cantus as a second- rather than a fourth-declension noun) can also be found
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Gregorian Chant
Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions. Although popular legend credits Pope St. Gregory the Great with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that it arose from a later Carolingian
Carolingian
synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant. Gregorian chants were organized initially into four, then eight, and finally 12 modes
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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