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Authority Control
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs[1][2][3] by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic
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Encoded Archival Context
Encoded Archival Context - Corporate bodies, Persons and Families (EAC-CPF) is an XML
XML
standard for encoding information about the creators of archival materials -- i.e., a corporate body, person or family -- including their relationships to (a) resources (books, collections, papers, etc.) and (b) other corporate bodies, persons and families. The goal is to provide contextual information regarding the circumstances of record creation and use. EAC-CPF can be used in conjunction with Encoded Archival Description (EAD) for enhancement of EAD's capabilities in encoding finding aids, but can also be used in conjunction with other standards or for standalone authority file encoding. EAC-CPF is defined in a document type definition (DTD) as well as in an XML
XML
Schema and a Relax NG schema
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Academic Authorship
Academic authorship of journal articles, books, and other original works is a means by which academics communicate the results of their scholarly work, establish priority for their discoveries, and build their reputation among their peers. Authorship is a primary basis that employers use to evaluate academic personnel for employment, promotion, and tenure. In academic publishing, authorship of a work is claimed by those making intellectual contributions to the completion of the research described in the work. In simple cases, a solitary scholar carries out a research project and writes the subsequent article or book. In many disciplines, however, collaboration is the norm and issues of authorship can be controversial
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Floruit
Floruit (/ˈflɔːr(j)uɪt, ˈflɒr-/), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin
Latin
for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.[1][2] In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone "flourished".[1] Etymology and use[edit] Latin: flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin
Latin
verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower".[3][2] Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such
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Lex (URN)
lex is a URN namespace, a type of Uniform Resource Name (URN), that allows accurate identification of laws and other legal norms. LexML Brasil[1] and Italy[2] (Civil law countries) already do an official use of the URN LEX standard draft v0.9,[3] as a namespace for sources of law.Contents1 Syntax 2 Concrete examples 3 Transparent identifiers 4 See also 5 ReferencesSyntax[edit] The identifier has a hierarchical structure as follows:[3]"urn:lex:"<NSS>where NSS is the Namespace Specific String composed as follows:<NSS>::=<jurisdiction>":"<local-name>where:<jurisdiction> is the part providing the identification of the jurisdiction, generally corresponding to the country where the source of law is issued. <local-name> is the uniform name of the source of
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Logical Connective
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective. The most common logical connectives are binary connectives (also called dyadic connectives) which join two sentences which can be thought of as the function's operands. Also commonly, negation is considered to be a unary connective. Logical connectives along with quantifiers are the two main types of logical constants used in formal systems such as propositional logic and predicate logic
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Online Public Access Catalog
An online public access catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply library catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users search a library catalog principally to locate books and other material available at a library. In simple language it is an electronic version of the card catalog. OPAC is the gateway to library's collection.Contents1 History1.1 Early online catalogs 1.2 Stagnation and dissatisfaction 1.3 Next-generation catalogs2 Union catalogs 3 Related systems 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Early online catalogs[edit]Screenshot of a Dynix menu
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Named-entity Recognition
Named-entity recognition (NER) (also known as entity identification, entity chunking and entity extraction) is a subtask of information extraction that seeks to locate and classify named entities in text into pre-defined categories such as the names of persons, organizations, locations, expressions of times, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc. Most research on NER systems has been structured as taking an unannotated block of text, such as this one:Jim bought 300 shares of Acme Corp. in 2006.And producing an annotated block of text that highlights the names of entities:[Jim]Person bought 300 shares of [Acme Corp.]Organization in [2006]Time.In this example, a person name consisting of one token, a two-token company name and a temporal expression have been detected and classified. State-of-the-art NER systems for English produce near-human performance
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GeoNames
GeoNames
GeoNames
is a geographical database available and accessible through various web services, under a Creative Commons
Creative Commons
attribution license.Contents1 Database and web services 2 Wiki
Wiki
interface 3 Semantic Web integration 4 References 5 External linksDatabase and web services[edit] The GeoNames
GeoNames
database contains over 10,000,000 geographical names corresponding to over 7,500,000 unique features.[1] All features are categorized into one of nine feature classes and further subcategorized into one of 645 feature codes
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VCard
vCard, also known as VCF (Virtual Contact File), is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as on the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
or instant messaging. They can contain name and address information, telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and audio clips. vCard is used as data interchange format in Personal digital assistants (PDAs), Personal information managers (PIMs) and Customer relationship management (CRMs)
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Collocation
In corpus linguistics, a collocation is a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. In phraseology, collocation is a sub-type of phraseme. An example of a phraseological collocation, as propounded by Michael Halliday,[1] is the expression strong tea. While the same meaning could be conveyed by the roughly equivalent powerful tea, this expression is considered excessive and awkward by English speakers. Conversely, the corresponding expression in technology, powerful computer is preferred over strong computer
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Legal Personality
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity)[1][2] is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having legal rights and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.[3][4][5] The term "legal person" is however ambiguous because it is also used in contradistinction to "natural person", i.e
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Bibliographic Database
A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc
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Digital Author Identification
In the Dutch research system, the Digital Author Identifier (DAI) system assigns a unique number to all academic authors as a form of authority control. The DAI links the PICA database in institutional libraries with the METIS national research information system. The Digital Author Identifier is a unique national number for every author active within a Dutch university, university of applied sciences, or research institute. The DAI is prepared from the ISO standard “ISNI” (International Standard Name Identifier). The DAI brings several publications from an author together, and distinguishes between authors with the same name.Contents1 Other author identifiers 2 Applications 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOther author identifiers[edit] The DAI is part of the national knowledge infrastructure
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Metadata Authority Description Schema
Metadata Authority Description Schema (MADS) is an XML schema developed by the United States Library of Congress' Network Development and Standards Office that provides an authority element set to complement the Metadata Object Description Schema
Metadata Object Description Schema
(MODS).[1]Contents1 History 2 Further reading 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]April 2004: Preliminary version for review December 2004: Draft for review April 2005: Version 1.0 publishedFurther reading[edit]Sally McCallum, Library of Congress. "MADS, a MODS Companion". [permanent dead link]References[edit]^ Mark Needleman (March 2005). "Standards Update: Some Interesting XML Standards". Serials Review
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Library Catalog
A library catalog or library catalogue is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, realia, cartographic materials, etc.) that is considered library material (e.g., a single novel in an anthology), or a group of library materials (e.g., a trilogy), or linked from the catalog (e.g., a webpage) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users (patrons) of the library. The card catalog was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalog (OPAC). Some still refer to the online catalog as a "card catalog". Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated
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