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Australia–New Zealand Relations
AUSTRALIA–NEW ZEALAND RELATIONS, also referred to as TRANS-TASMAN RELATIONS ("relations across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
"), are extremely close with both sharing British colonial heritage as Antipodean White Dominions and settler colonies as well as being part of the wider Anglosphere
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Australia–New Zealand Maritime Treaty
The AUSTRALIA–NEW ZEALAND MARITIME TREATY is a 2004 treaty between Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
in which the two countries formally delimited the maritime boundary between the two countries. The treaty was signed in Adelaide
Adelaide
on 25 July 2004 by Foreign Minister of Australia
Australia
Alexander Downer and Foreign Minister of New Zealand
New Zealand
Phil Goff . It formalised the ocean borders that had been de facto recognised by both countries since the early 1980s, when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was created
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Boundary Delimitation
BOUNDARY DELIMITATION (or simply DELIMITATION) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts , states , counties or other municipalities. In the context of elections, it can be called redistribution and is used to prevent unbalance of population across districts. Unbalanced or discriminatory delimitation is called "gerrymandering ." Though there are no internationally agreed processes that guarantee fair delimitation, several organizations, such as the Commonwealth Secretariat , the European Union
European Union
and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems have proposed guidelines for effective delimitation. In international law, the related NATIONAL DELIMITATION is the process of legally establishing the outer limits ("borders") of a state within which full territorial or functional sovereignty is exercised
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Lowy Institute For International Policy
The LOWY INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICY is an independent think tank endowed by Frank Lowy to conduct original, policy-relevant research about international political, strategic and economic issues from an Australian perspective. It is based in Sydney, New South Wales , Australia . Its research and analysis aim to be non-partisan, and its active program of conferences, seminars and other events are designed to inform and deepen the debate about international policy in Australia and to help shape the broader international discussion of these issues
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Australia–United States Relations
AUSTRALIA–UNITED STATES RELATIONS are the international relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America . At the governmental level, Australia–United States relations are formalised by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement . According to a 2014 BBC World Service poll, 44 percent of Australians had a "mainly positive" view of the United States and 46 percent had a "mainly negative" view, for a net rating of −2 points. No similar survey was conducted to ascertain American perceptions of Australia. According to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership Report, 55% of Australians approve of U.S. leadership, with 21% disapproving and 24% uncertain. In a more recent 2016 Pew Research poll, 60% of Australians approve of U.S. leadership. In 2017, a major poll conducted in Australia by the Lowy Institute showed that 77% believed an alliance with the US was important for security
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Capital City
A CAPITAL CITY (or simply CAPITAL) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country , state , province , or other administrative region , usually as its seat of government . A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government ; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution . In some jurisdictions , including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Maritime Boundary
A MARITIME BOUNDARY is a conceptual division of the Earth
Earth
's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources, encompassing maritime features, limits and zones. Generally, a maritime boundary is delineated at a particular distance from a jurisdiction's coastline. Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , maritime borders usually serve to identify the edge of international waters . Maritime boundaries exist in the context of territorial waters , contiguous zones , and exclusive economic zones ; however, the terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries. Some maritime boundaries have remained indeterminate despite efforts to clarify them
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Australian Antarctic Territory
The AUSTRALIAN ANTARCTIC TERRITORY (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division , an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy . The territory's history dates to a claim on Enderby Land
Enderby Land
made by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1841, which was subsequently expanded and eventually transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica
Antarctica
claimed by any nation. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty came into force. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty
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Representative Democracy
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (also INDIRECT DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC, or PSEPHOCRACY) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy . Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a constitutional monarchy , Ireland is a parliamentary republic , and the United States
United States
is a federal republic . Representative democracy
Representative democracy
is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. It arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness and time effectiveness
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Parliamentary Democracy
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (also INDIRECT DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC, or PSEPHOCRACY) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy . Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a constitutional monarchy , Ireland is a parliamentary republic , and the United States
United States
is a federal republic . Representative democracy
Representative democracy
is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. It arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness and time effectiveness
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Ross Dependency
The ROSS DEPENDENCY is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole , passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west , and terminating at latitude 60° south . It is claimed by New Zealand . Since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states: "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica," most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica. The Dependency takes its name from Sir James Clark Ross , who discovered the Ross Sea , and includes part of Victoria Land , and most of the Ross Ice Shelf
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Canberra
CANBERRA (/ˈkænbrə/ ( listen ) or /ˈkænbərə/ ) is the capital city of Australia
Australia
. With a population of 381,488, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall . The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney
Sydney
, and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne
Melbourne
. A resident of Canberra
Canberra
is known as a "Canberran". Although Canberra
Canberra
is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in Sydney, as does the Governor-General
Governor-General
and the Prime Minister
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Wellington
WELLINGTON /ˈwɛlɪŋtən/ (Māori : Te Whanganui-a-Tara) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand
New Zealand
, with 405,000 residents. It is at the south-western tip of the North Island , between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range . Wellington
Wellington
is the major population centre of the southern North Island
North Island
and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region , which also includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa . It is the world's windiest city, with an average wind speed of over 26 km/h, and the world\'s southernmost capital of a sovereign state
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Patsy Reddy
DAME PATRICIA LEE "PATSY" REDDY, GNZM , QSO , DStJ (born 17 May 1954) is a New Zealand lawyer and non-executive director who has served as the 21st Governor-General of New Zealand
Governor-General of New Zealand
since 28 September 2016. She is the third woman to be appointed to the position, after Catherine Tizard and Silvia Cartwright . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Governor-General * 4 Personal life * 5 Honours and awards * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONBorn in Matamata , New Zealand, on 17 May 1954, Reddy is the daughter of Neil William and Catherine Marjorie "Kay" Reddy, both of whom were schoolteachers. Three of her forebears left Ireland and went to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A distant cousin, singer Helen Reddy , is descended from the Australian forebear
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Peter Cosgrove
General SIR PETER JOHN COSGROVE, AK , MC (born 28 July 1947) is a retired senior Australian Army officer who is the 26th and current Governor-General of Australia
Governor-General of Australia
, in office since 2014. A graduate of the Royal Military College, Duntroon , Cosgrove fought in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, receiving the Military Cross
Military Cross
in 1971. From 1983 to 1984, he was commander of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1 RAR), and he later served as commander of the 6th Brigade and the 1st Division . Cosgrove rose to prominence in 1999, when he served as commander of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) , which oversaw the peacekeeping mission in East Timor during its transition to independence
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