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Australia–New Zealand Relations
Australia– New Zealand
New Zealand
relations, also referred to as Trans-Tasman relations ("relations across the Tasman Sea"), are extremely close with both sharing British colonial heritage as Antipodean
Antipodean
White Dominions and settler colonies as well as being part of the
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Canberra
Canberra
Canberra
(/ˈkænbrə/ ( listen), /-bərə/)[9] is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 403,468,[1] it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney, and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra
Canberra
is known as a "Canberran". Although Canberra
Canberra
is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister. The site of Canberra
Canberra
was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney
Sydney
and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities
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Representative Democracy
Representative democracy
Representative democracy
(also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.[2] Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, Ireland is a unitary parliamentary republic, and the United States is a federal republic.[3] It is an element of both the parliamentary and the presidential systems of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons
House of Commons
(United Kingdom), Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(India) or Dáil Éireann (Republic of Ireland), and may be curtailed by constitutional constraints such as an upper chamber. It has been described by some political theorists including Robert A
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Parliamentary Democracy
Representative democracy
Representative democracy
(also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.[2] Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, Ireland is a unitary parliamentary republic, and the United States is a federal republic.[3] It is an element of both the parliamentary and the presidential systems of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons
House of Commons
(United Kingdom), Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(India) or Dáil Éireann (Republic of Ireland), and may be curtailed by constitutional constraints such as an upper chamber. It has been described by some political theorists including Robert A
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercise authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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Ross Dependency
The Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
is a region of Antarctica
Antarctica
defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south. It is claimed by New Zealand. Since the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states: "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica," most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica. The Dependency takes its name from Sir James Clark Ross, who discovered the Ross Sea, and includes part of Victoria Land, and most of the Ross Ice Shelf
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Australian Antarctic Territory
The Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy. The territory's history dates to a claim on Enderby Land
Enderby Land
made by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1841, which was subsequently expanded and eventually transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica
Antarctica
claimed by any nation. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty came into force. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty
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Maritime Boundary
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources,[1] encompassing maritime features, limits and zones.[2] Generally, a maritime boundary is delineated at a particular distance from a jurisdiction's coastline. Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation[3] that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime borders usually serve to identify the edge of international waters. Maritime boundaries exist in the context of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones; however, the terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries. Some maritime boundaries have remained indeterminate despite efforts to clarify them
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Boundary Delimitation
Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.[1] In the context of elections, it can be called redistribution and is used to prevent unbalance of population across districts.[1] Unbalanced or discriminatory delimitation is called "gerrymandering."[2] Though there are no internationally agreed processes that guarantee fair delimitation, several organizations, such as the Commonwealth Secretariat, the European Union
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Lowy Institute For International Policy
The Lowy Institute is an independent think tank founded in April 2003 by Frank Lowy
Frank Lowy
to conduct original, policy-relevant research about international political, strategic and economic issues from an Australian perspective. It is based in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Its research and analysis aim to be non-partisan, and its active program of conferences, seminars and other events are designed to inform and deepen the debate about international policy in Australia
Australia
and to help shape the broader international discussion of these issues.Contents1 Research programs 2 Website 3 Board of Directors 4 Notable staff 5 Former staff 6 Lowy Poll 7 Criticism 8 References 9 External linksResearch programs[edit]East Asia International Security Pacific Islands West Asia International Economy Diplomacy and Public OpinionWebsite[edit] The Institute's website offers publications for free download
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Capital City
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Wellington
Wellington
Wellington
(/ˈwɛlɪŋtən/; Māori: Te Whanganui-a-Tara [te ˈfanganʉi a tara]) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 412,500 residents.[3] It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait
Cook Strait
and the Rimutaka Range
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the Commonwealth Realms).[2] In countries where the head of state is also
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Sydney
Sydney
Sydney
(/ˈsɪdni/ ( listen))[7] is the state capital of New South Wales
Wales
and the most populous city in Australia
Australia
and Oceania.[8] Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world's largest natural harbour and sprawls about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north and Macarthur to the south.[9] Sydney
Sydney
is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions
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Auckland
Auckland
Auckland
(/ˈɔːklənd/ AWK-lənd) is a city in New Zealand's North Island
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