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August Willich
American Civil WarBattle of Rowlett's Station Battle of Shiloh Battle of Stones River Battle of Liberty Gap Battle of Chickamauga Battle of Missionary Ridge Battle of Resaca Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Battle of Peachtree Creek August Willich
August Willich
(November 19, 1810 – January 22, 1878), born Johann August Ernst von Willich, was a military officer in the Prussian Army and a leading early proponent of communism[1] in Germany. In 1847 he discarded his title of nobility. He later immigrated to the United States and became a general in the Union Army
Union Army
during the American Civil War.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Civil War 3 Postbellum career 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Willich was born in Braunsberg, Province of East Prussia. His father, a captain of hussars during the Napoleonic Wars,[2] died when Willich was three years old
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Communism
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Franz Sigel
Baden
Baden
Army Baden
Baden
Revolutionary Forces United States
United States
ArmyUnion ArmyYears of service 1843–1847 (Baden) 1848 (Revolutionaries) 1861–1865 (USA)Rank Lieutenant
Lieutenant
(Baden) Colonel ( Baden
Baden
Revolutionaries) Major General (USA)Commands held XI CorpsBattles/wars Baden
Baden
Revolution American Civil WarBattle of Carthage Battle of Wilson's Creek Battle of Pea Ridge Second Battle of Bull Run Battle of New Market Franz Sigel
Franz Sigel
(November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German military officer, revolutionist and immigrant to the United States
United States
who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War
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Friedrich Hecker
Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 – March 24, 1881) was a German lawyer, politician and revolutionary. He was one of the most popular speakers and agitators of the 1848 Revolution. After moving to the United States, he served as a brigade commander in the Union Army
Union Army
during the American Civil War.Contents1 Education and politics 2 1848-49 revolutions 3 American experience and the Civil War 4 Post-war activities and reputation 5 Works 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEducation and politics[edit] Born at Eichtersheim (now Angelbachtal
Angelbachtal
in Baden-Württemberg), the son of a revenue official, he studied law at the University of Heidelberg with the intention of becoming a lawyer. In Heidelberg he became a member of the Corps Rhenania
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Freikorps
Freikorps
Freikorps
(pronounced [ˈfʀaɪ̯ˌkoːɐ̯], "Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, the members of which effectively fought as mercenaries, regardless of their own nationality. In German-speaking countries, the first so-called Freikorps
Freikorps
("free regiments", German: Freie Regimenter) were formed in the 18th century from native volunteers, enemy renegades and deserters, and criminals. These sometimes exotically equipped units served as infantry and cavalry (or more rarely as artillery), sometimes in just company strength, sometimes in formations up to several thousand strong; there were also various mixed formations or legions. The Prussian von Kleist Freikorps included infantry, jäger, dragoons and hussars
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Louis Blenker
Louis Blenker
Louis Blenker
(July 31, 1812 – October 31, 1863) was a German revolutionary and American soldier.Contents1 Life in Germany 2 Life in the United States 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife in Germany[edit] He was born at Worms, Germany. After being trained as a goldsmith by an uncle in Kreuznach, he was sent to a polytechnical school in Munich. Against his family's wishes, he enlisted in an Uhlan
Uhlan
regiment which accompanied Otto to Greece
Greece
in 1832. Due to his gallantry, he soon became an officer. A revolt in Greece
Greece
obligated him to leave, with an honorable discharge, in 1837. He studied medicine in Munich and then, at the wish of his parents, opened a wine trading business in Worms. He also married. In 1848, he became a colonel in the Worms militia
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Court-martial
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment. In addition, courts-martial may be used to try prisoners of war for war crimes. The Geneva Convention requires that POWs who are on trial for war crimes be subject to the same procedures as would be the holding military's own forces. Finally, courts-martial can be convened for other purposes, such as dealing with violations of martial law, and can involve civilian defendants.[1][2] Most navies have a standard court-martial which convenes whenever a ship is lost; this does not presume that the captain is suspected of wrongdoing, but merely that the circumstances surrounding the loss of the ship be made part of the official record
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Carl Schurz
Carl Christian Schurz (German: [ˈkaʁl ˈʃʊʁts]; March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer. He migrated to the United States
United States
after the German revolutions of 1848–49
German revolutions of 1848–49
and became a prominent member of the Republican Party. After serving as a Union general in the American Civil War, he helped found the short lived Liberal Republican Party and became a prominent advocate of civil service reform. Schurz represented Missouri
Missouri
in the United States Senate
United States Senate
and was the 13th United States
United States
Secretary of the Interior. Born in Prussia's Rhine Province, Schurz fought for democratic reforms in the German revolutions of 1848–49
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Friedrich Schleiermacher
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈʃlaɪɐˌmaχɐ]; November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of higher criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound effect on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Hussar
A hussar (/həˈzɑːr/ hə-ZAR, /hʊˈzɑːr/[1]) was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian
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Captain (land)
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery (or United States Army cavalry troop or Commonwealth squadron). In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO
NATO
countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 (lieutenant or first lieutenant) and one below an OF-3 (major or commandant)
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Province Of East Prussia
East Prussia
Prussia
(German: Ostpreußen, pronounced [ˈɔstˌpʁɔʏsən] ( listen); Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Lithuanian: Rytų Prūsija; Latin: Borussia orientalis; Russian: Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire
German Empire
from 1871); following World War I
World War I
it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
Königsberg
(present-day Kaliningrad). East Prussia
Prussia
was the main part of the region of Prussia
Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast.[1] East Prussia
Prussia
enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians
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Battle Of Peachtree Creek
The Battle of Peachtree Creek
Peachtree Creek
was fought in Georgia on July 20, 1864, as part of the Atlanta Campaign
Atlanta Campaign
in the American Civil War.[3] It was the first major attack by Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood
John Bell Hood
since taking command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee. The attack was against Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's Union army which was perched on the doorstep of Atlanta. The main armies in the conflict were the Union Army
Union Army
of the Cumberland, commanded by Maj. Gen. George Henry Thomas, and two corps of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Lt. Gen. John B. Hood
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Battle Of Kennesaw Mountain
Military Division of the Mississippi:Army of the Cumberland Army of the Ohio Army of the TennesseeArmy of TennesseeStrength16,225[2] 17,733[2]Casualties and losses3,000[3] 1,000[3]v t eAtlanta CampaignRocky Face Ridge Resaca Adairsville New Hope Church Pickett's Mill Dallas Kolb's Farm Kennesaw Mountain Marietta Noonday Creek Pace's Ferry Peachtree Creek Atlanta Ezra Church Brown's Mill Utoy Creek Second Dalton Lovejoy's Station JonesboroughThe Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
Kennesaw Mountain
was fought on June 27, 1864, during the Atlanta Campaign
Atlanta Campaign
of the American Civil War. It was the most significant frontal assault launched by Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman against the Confederate Army of Tennessee
Army of Tennessee
under Gen
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Battle Of Resaca
The Battle of Resaca
Battle of Resaca
was part of the Atlanta Campaign
Atlanta Campaign
of the American Civil War. The battle was waged in both Gordon and Whitfield counties, Georgia, May 13–15, 1864. It ended inconclusively with the Confederate Army retreating. The engagement was fought between the Military Division of the Mississippi
Military Division of the Mississippi
(led by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman) on the side of the Union and the Army of Tennessee
Army of Tennessee
(Gen. Joseph E
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