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Aufseherin
The Aufseherinnen were female guards in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. Of the 55,000 guards who served in Nazi concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
and Majdanek
Majdanek
from Ravensbrück. The year after, the Nazis began conscripting women because of a guard shortage. The German title for this position, Aufseherin (plural Aufseherinnen) means female overseer or attendant
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The Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
(also Dora-Mittelbau and Nordhausen-Dora) was a German Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
located near Nordhausen
Nordhausen
in Thuringia, Germany. It was established in late summer 1943 as a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp, supplying slave labour from many countries occupied by Germany
Germany
(including Italian POWs
POWs
and evacuated survivors of eastern extermination camps), for extending the nearby tunnels in the Kohnstein
Kohnstein
and for manufacturing the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
and the V-1 flying bomb. In the summer of 1944, Mittelbau became an independent concentration camp with numerous subcamps of its own. In 1945, most of the surviving inmates were evacuated by the SS. On 11 April 1945, US troops freed the remaining prisoners
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Nazi Concentration Camps
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War
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Ilse Koch
Ilse Koch
Ilse Koch
(German: [kɔx]; née Margarete Ilse Köhler; 22 September 1906 – 1 September 1967) was the wife of Karl-Otto Koch, commandant of the Nazi
Nazi
concentration camps Buchenwald (1937–1941) and Majdanek (1941–1943). In 1947, she became one of the first prominent Nazis to be tried by the U.S. military. After the trial received worldwide media attention, survivor accounts of her actions resulted in other authors describing her abuse of prisoners as sadistic, and the image of her as "the concentration camp murderess" was current in post-war German society.[1] She was accused of taking souvenirs from the skin of murdered inmates with distinctive tattoos, although those claims were rejected at both of her trials. She was known as "The Witch of Buchenwald" (Die Hexe von Buchenwald) by the inmates because of her cruelty and lasciviousness toward prisoners
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Karl Otto Koch
Karl-Otto Koch (German: [kɔχ]; 2 August 1897 – 5 April 1945) was a mid-ranking commander in the SS of Nazi Germany
Germany
who was the first commandant of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
at Buchenwald
Buchenwald
and Sachsenhausen
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Firebombing Of Dresden
Allied victoryStrategic targets destroyed Extensive German casualtiesBelligerents RAF USAAF LuftwaffeStrength769 heavy bombers (RAF) 527 heavy bombers (USAAF) 784 North American P-51 Mustangs28 Messerschmitt Bf 110 night fightersCasualties and losses8 aircraft shot down 22,700–25,000 deathsDresden, 1945, view from the city hall (Rathaus) over the destroyed cityThe bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre
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Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(Polish pronunciation: [ɡdaɲsk] ( listen), English: /ɡəˈdaɪnsk, -ˈdɑːnsk, -ˈdænsk/[1]; German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] ( listen), English: /ˈdænsɪɡ/) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast
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Gross Rosen
Coordinates: 50°59′57″N 16°16′40″E / 50.999281°N 16.277704°E / 50.999281; 16.277704Gross-RosenNazi concentration campModel of the Gross-Rosen main camp, from the Rogoźnica Museum [1]Gross-Rosen campLocation of Gross-Rosen at Rogoźnica, PolandOperationPeriod Summer of 1940 – February 14, 1945PrisonersTotal 125,000 (in estimated 100 subcamps)Victims 40,000Gross-Rosen concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen) was a German network of Nazi concentration camps built and operated during World War II. The main camp was located in the village of Gross-Rosen not far from the border with occupied Poland, in the modern-day Rogoźnica in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland;[2] directly on the rail-line between the towns of Jawor (Jauer) and Strzegom (Striegau).[1][3] At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps located in eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia, and on the territory of occupied Poland
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Langenbielau
Bielawa [bʲɛˈlava] ( listen) (German: Langenbielau; Silesian: Bjelawa), population 31,988 (2010), is a town in southwestern Poland. Since 1999, it has been situated in Dzierżoniów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship. From 1975–1998, it was part of the Wałbrzych Voivodeship, and from the 13th century up to 1945 was inside of Germany territory. Bielawa lies in the central part of Lower Silesia, along the Bielawica stream in the Sowie Mountains region. The town covers an area in excess of 36 square kilometres (14 sq mi). Bielawa lies at an altitude range of 280 and 964 m above sea level, in the Sowie Mountains. It is considered one of the most naturally beautiful regions of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, and is a year-round tourist destination
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Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp
Coordinates: 48°15′25″N 14°30′04″E / 48.25694°N 14.50111°E / 48.25694; 14.50111Mauthausen–GusenConcentration campGate to the garage yard in the Mauthausen
Mauthausen
concentration campLocation of Mauthausen–Gusen in AustriaOther names Mauthausen, GusenLocation in and around Mauthausen
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Dachau Concentration Camp
Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich
Munich
in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[3] Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany
Germany
occupied or invaded
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Schutzstaffel
The Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes; German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafl̩] ( listen); literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz ("Hall Security") made up of NSDAP
NSDAP
volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925 Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45) it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany
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Dora Mittelbau
Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
(also Dora-Mittelbau and Nordhausen-Dora) was a German Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
located near Nordhausen
Nordhausen
in Thuringia, Germany. It was established in late summer 1943 as a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp, supplying slave labour from many countries occupied by Germany
Germany
(including Italian POWs
POWs
and evacuated survivors of eastern extermination camps), for extending the nearby tunnels in the Kohnstein
Kohnstein
and for manufacturing the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
and the V-1 flying bomb. In the summer of 1944, Mittelbau became an independent concentration camp with numerous subcamps of its own. In 1945, most of the surviving inmates were evacuated by the SS. On 11 April 1945, US troops freed the remaining prisoners
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Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains
Vosges Mountains
close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller
Natzwiller
(German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg. Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy. Between 1941 and 1944, Alsace
Alsace
was administered by Germany
Germany
as an integral part of the German Reich. The camp operated from 21 May 1941 and was evacuated early September 1944. Only a small staff of Nazi SS personnel remained until the camp was liberated by the French First Army under the command of the U.S
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Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
(Northern Bavarian: Flossenbirch) is a municipality in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
in Bavaria
Bavaria
in Germany. The state-approved leisure area is located in the Bavarian Forest
Bavarian Forest
and borders the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
in the east. During World War II, the Flossenbürg concentration camp
Flossenbürg concentration camp
was located here. History[edit] The first reference of Flossenbürg’s existence was in 948. Its castle was the Hohenstaufen's stronghold. Later, Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
belonged to the duchy of Neuburg-Sulzbach and came to the regional court of Floß
Floß
in the Electorate of Bavaria
Bavaria
in 1777
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