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Audio Signal Processing
Audio signal processing or audio processing is the intentional alteration of audio signals often through an audio effect or effects unit. As audio signals may be electronically represented in either digital or analog format, signal processing may occur in either domain. Analog processors operate directly on the electrical signal, while digital processors operate mathematically on the digital representation of that signal.Contents1 History 2 Analog signals 3 Digital signals 4 Application areas4.1 Audio broadcasting5 Techniques 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit] Audio signals are electronic representations of sound waves—longitudinal waves which travel through air, consisting of compressions and rarefactions. The energy contained in audio signals is typically measured in decibels
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Noise Cancellation
Active noise control
Active noise control
(ANC), also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for reducing unwanted sound by the addition of a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first.Contents1 Explanation 2 Applications 3 Active vs. passive noise control 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksExplanation[edit] Sound
Sound
is a pressure wave, which consists of alternating periods of compression and rarefaction. A noise-cancellation speaker emits a sound wave with the same amplitude but with inverted phase (also known as antiphase) to the original sound. The waves combine to form a new wave, in a process called interference, and effectively cancel each other out – an effect which is called destructive interference. Modern active noise control is generally achieved through the use of analog circuits or digital signal processing
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Digital Electronics
Digital electronics
Digital electronics
or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals. In contrast, analog circuits manipulate analog signals whose performance is more subject to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation and noise. Digital techniques are helpful because it is a lot easier to get an electronic device to switch into one of a number of known states than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values. Digital electronic circuits are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates (often printed on integrated circuits), simple electronic representations of Boolean logic
Boolean logic
functions.[1]Contents1 History 2 Properties 3 Construction 4 Design4.1 Structure of digital systems4.1.1 Representation 4.1.2 Combinational vs
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Loudness
In acoustics, loudness is the subjective perception of sound pressure. More formally, it is defined as, "That attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be ordered on a scale extending from quiet to loud."[1] The relation of physical attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical, physiological and psychological components. The study of apparent loudness is included in the topic of psychoacoustics and employs methods of psychophysics. In different industries, loudness may have different meanings and different measurement standards
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Tachometer
A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-counter, RPM gauge) is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine.[1] The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly common. The word comes from Greek ταχος (tachos "speed") and metron ("measure"). Essentially the words tachometer and speedometer have identical meaning: a device that measures speed. It is by arbitrary convention that in the automotive world one is used for engine and the other for vehicle speed
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Mixing Console
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals. Inputs to the console include microphones being used by singers and for picking up acoustic instruments, signals from electric or electronic instruments, or recorded music. Depending on the type, a mixer is able to control analog or digital signals. The modified signals are summed to produce the combined output signals, which can then be broadcast, amplified through a sound reinforcement system or recorded. Mixing consoles are used in many applications, including recording studios, public address systems, sound reinforcement systems, nightclubs, broadcasting, television, and film post-production. A typical, simple application combines signals from microphones on stage into an amplifier that drives one set of loudspeakers for the audience
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All-pass Filter
An all-pass filter is a signal processing filter that passes all frequencies equally in gain, but changes the phase relationship among various frequencies
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C-3PO
C-3PO
C-3PO
(/ˌsiːˈθriːpioʊ/) or See-Threepio is a humanoid robot character from the Star Wars
Star Wars
franchise who appears in the original trilogy, the prequel trilogy and the sequel trilogy. Rebuilt by Anakin Skywalker, C-3PO
C-3PO
was designed as a protocol droid intended to assist in etiquette, customs, and translation,[1] boasting that he is "fluent in over six million forms of communication".[2] Along with his astromech droid counterpart and friend R2-D2, C-3PO
C-3PO
provides comic relief within the narrative structure of the films, and serves as a foil
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Star Wars
Trilogies:Original trilogy:IV – A New Hope (1977) V – The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(1980) VI – Return of the Jedi
Return of the Jedi
(1983)Prequel trilogy:I – The Phantom Menace (1999) II – Attack of the Clones (2002) III – Revenge of the
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Attenuation
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium. For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates. Hearing protectors
Hearing protectors
help reduce acoustic flux from flowing into the ears. This phenomenon is called acoustic attenuation and is measured in decibels (dBs). In electrical engineering and telecommunications, attenuation affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits, in optical fibers, and in air
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Transmission (telecom)
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: Tx, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.[1][2] One example of transmission is the sending of a signal with limited duration, for example a block or packet of data, a phone call, or an email. Transmission technologies and schemes typically refer to physical layer protocol duties such as modulation, demodulation, line coding, equalization, error control, bit synchronization and multiplexing, but the term may also involve higher-layer protocol duties, for example, digitizing an analog message signal, and data compression. Transmission of a digital message, or of a digitized analog signal, is known as digital communication. See also[edit]Communication channelReferences[edit]^ "Telecommunications Technology Fundamentals". informit.com
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Low-pass Filter
A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The exact frequency response of the filter depends on the filter design. The filter is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble-cut filter in audio applications. A low-pass filter is the complement of a high-pass filter. Low-pass filters exist in many different forms, including electronic circuits such as a hiss filter used in audio, anti-aliasing filters for conditioning signals prior to analog-to-digital conversion, digital filters for smoothing sets of data, acoustic barriers, blurring of images, and so on. The moving average operation used in fields such as finance is a particular kind of low-pass filter, and can be analyzed with the same signal processing techniques as are used for other low-pass filters
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Audio Storage
Sound
Sound
recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it
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Computer
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms
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Analog (signal)
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. For example, in an analog audio signal, the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves. It differs from a digital signal, in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values.[1][2] The term analog signal usually refers to electrical signals; however, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, human speech, and other systems may also convey or be considered analog signals. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information
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Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC),[1] or at most a few integrated circuits.[2] The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The integration of a whole CPU
CPU
onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost
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