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Attic Dialect
Attic Greek
Attic Greek
is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including of the city of Athens. Of the ancient dialects, it is the most similar to later Greek and is the standard form of the language that is studied in ancient Greek language
Greek language
courses. Attic Greek
Attic Greek
is sometimes included in the Ionic dialect
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Attica
Coordinates: 38°05′0″N 23°30′0″E / 38.08333°N 23.50000°E / 38.08333; 23.50000Attica ΑττικήRegion of Ancient GreeceView from Kaisariani
Kaisariani
Hill looking towards Athens
Athens
and Piraeus, with Salamis visible in the backgroundMap of municipalities (demoi) in ancient AtticaLocation Central GreeceMajor cities Athens, PiraeusDialects AtticKey periods Athenian Empire (477–404 BC) Second Athenian Confederacy (378–338 BC) Attica
Attica
(Greek: Αττική, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Attikḗ or Attikī́; Ancient Greek: [atːikɛ̌ː] or Modern: [atiˈci]), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece
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Greek Literature
Greek literature
Greek literature
dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature
Greek literature
of today. Ancient Greek literature
Ancient Greek literature
was written in an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
dialect. This literature ranges from the oldest surviving written works until works from approximately the fifth century AD. This time period is divided into the Preclassical, Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. Preclassical Greek literature
Greek literature
primarily revolved around myths and include the works of Homer; the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey. The Classical period saw the dawn of drama and history.Three philosophers are especially notable: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
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Cyclades
The Cyclades
Cyclades
(/ˈsɪklədiːz/; Greek: Κυκλάδες [cikˈlaðes]) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago. The name refers to the islands around (κυκλάς) the sacred island of Delos
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Chalkidiki
Chalcidice or Chalkidike or Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
or Halkidiki (Greek: Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí, [xalciðiˈci]), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos
Mount Athos
region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit
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Thrace
Thrace
Thrace
(/θreɪs/; Modern Greek: Θράκη, Thráke; Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish: Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
to the north, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east
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Euboea
Euboea or Evia[1] (/juːˈbiːə/; Greek: Εύβοια, Evvoia, pronounced [ˈevia]; Ancient Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia, [eúboja]) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 6 kilometres (3.7 mi)
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Magna Graecia
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(/ˌmæɡnə ˈɡriːsiə, ˈɡriːʃə/, US: /ˌmæɡnə ˈɡreɪʃə/; Latin
Latin
meaning "Great Greece", Greek: Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Italian: Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy
Southern Italy
in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria
Calabria
and Sicily
Sicily
that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae
Cumae
and Neapolis.[1] The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint on Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Hellenistic Civilization
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Muslim World
The terms Muslim
Muslim
world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam,[1] or to societies where Islam
Islam
is practiced.[2][3] In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam
Islam
is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.[4][3] Some scholars and commentators have criticised the term 'Muslim/Islamic world' and its derivative terms 'Muslim/Islamic country' as "simplistic" and "binary", since no state has a religiously homogeneous population (e.g. Egypt's citizens are c
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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Ptolemaic Kingdom
The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía)[3] was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria
Syria
to Cyrene and south to Nubia
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Athenian Democracy
Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy, in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a foreign resident, slave or a woman and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population."[1] The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles
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