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Atomic Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
atom Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol protium, 1HNeutrons 0Protons 1Nuclide dataNatural abundance 99.985% Isotope
Isotope
mass 1.007825 uSpin 1/2Excess energy 7288.969± 0.001 keVBinding energy 0.000± 0.0000 keVDepiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model
Bohr model
radius. (Image not to scale)A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen. The electrically neutral atom contains a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron bound to the nucleus by the Coulomb force. Atomic hydrogen constitutes about 75% of the baryonic mass of the universe.[1] In everyday life on Earth, isolated hydrogen atoms (called "atomic hydrogen") are extremely rare. Instead, hydrogen tends to combine with other atoms in compounds, or with itself to form ordinary (diatomic) hydrogen gas, H2
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Classical Electron Radius
The classical electron radius is a combination of fundamental physical quantities that define a length scale for problems involving electrons interacting with electromagnetic radiation. According to modern understanding, the electron is a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. Attempts to model the electron as a non-point particle are considered ill-conceived and counter-pedagogic.[1] Nevertheless, it is useful to define a length that arises in electron interactions in atomic-scale problems
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Deuterium
Deuterium Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol Hydrogen-2, 2H or DNeutrons 1Protons 1 Nuclide
Nuclide
dataNatural abundance 0.015% (Earth)Isotope mass 2.01410178 uSpin 1+Excess energy 13135.720± 0.001 keVBinding energy 2224.52± 0.20 keV Deuterium
Deuterium
(or hydrogen-2, symbol D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1). The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium
Deuterium
has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 7003642000000000000♠6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or, on a mass basis, 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%
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Nuclear Reactor
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ship's propellers or turn electrical generators. Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium. Some are run only for research
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Deuterium NMR
Deuterium
Deuterium
NMR is NMR spectroscopy
NMR spectroscopy
of deuterium (2H or D), an isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium
Deuterium
is an isotope with spin = 1, unlike hydrogen which is spin = 1/2. Deuterium
Deuterium
NMR has a range of chemical shift similar to proton NMR but with poor resolution
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Tritium
Tritium Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol tritium, 3HNeutrons 2Protons 1Nuclide dataNatural abundance traceHalf-life 12.32 yearsDecay products 3HeIsotope mass 3.0160492 uSpin ​1⁄2Excess energy 14,949.794± 0.001 keVBinding energy 8,481.821± 0.004 keVDecay mode Decay energyBeta emission 0.018590 MeV Tritium
Tritium
(/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/; symbol T or 3H, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of protium (by far the most abundant hydrogen isotope) contains one proton and no neutrons. Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. It can be produced by irradiating lithium metal or lithium-bearing ceramic pebbles in a nuclear reactor
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Half-life
Half-life
Half-life
(symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay. For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body
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Particle Accelerator
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.[1] Large accelerators are used in particle physics as colliders (e.g., the LHC
LHC
at CERN, KEKB at KEK
KEK
in Japan, RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Tevatron
Tevatron
at Fermilab), or as synchrotron light sources for the study of condensed matter physics. Smaller particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes, radioisotope production for medical diagnostics, ion implanters for manufacture of semiconductors, and accelerator mass spectrometers for measurements of rare isotopes such as radiocarbon
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Rydberg Constant
The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ for heavy atoms or RH for hydrogen, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy. The constant first arose as an empirical fitting parameter in the Rydberg formula
Rydberg formula
for the hydrogen spectral series, but Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
later showed that its value could be calculated from more fundamental constants, explaining the relationship via his "Bohr model". As of 2012, R∞ and electron spin g-factor are the most accurately measured fundamental physical constants.[1] The Rydberg constant represents the limiting value of the highest wavenumber (the inverse wavelength) of any photon that can be emitted from the hydrogen atom, or, alternatively, the wavenumber of the lowest-energy photon capable of ionizing the hydrogen atom from its ground state
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Hydron (chemistry)
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol H+. However, this term is avoided and instead "proton" is used, which strictly speaking refers to the cation of protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen. The term "hydron" includes cations of hydrogen regardless of their isotopic composition: thus it refers collectively to protons (1H+) for the protium isotope, deuterons (2H+ or D+) for the deuterium isotope, and tritons (3H+ or T+) for the tritium isotope. Unlike other ions, the hydron consists only of a bare atomic nucleus. The negatively charged counterpart of the hydron is the hydride anion, H−.Contents1 Properties1.1 Solute properties 1.2 Acidity2 Isotopes of hydron 3 History of the term 4 See also 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] Solute properties[edit] Hydron compounds are hydrophilic (ionic) solutes
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Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. A colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, when it reacts with an organic base it forms a hydrochloride salt. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayyan
around the year 800 AD.[5][6] Hydrochloric acid was historically called acidum salis, muriatic acid, and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (by Basilius Valentinus
Basilius Valentinus
in the 15th century) and later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph Glauber
Johann Rudolph Glauber
in the 17th century). Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius
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Hydronium Ion
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation  H3O+, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water. It is the positive ion present when an Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius acid
is dissolved in water, as Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius acid
molecules in solution give up a proton (a positive hydrogen ion, H+) to the surrounding water molecules (H2O).Contents1 Determination of pH 2 Nomenclature 3 Structure 4 Acids and acidity 5 Solvation 6 Solid hydronium salts 7 Interstellar H3O+7.1 Interstellar chemistry 7.2 Astronomical detections8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDetermination of pH[edit] The amount of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution's pH
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Interstellar Medium
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field. The interstellar medium is composed of multiple phases, distinguished by whether matter is ionic, atomic, or molecular, and the temperature and density of the matter
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Neutron
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits)[4]Electric dipole moment < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit)Electric polarizability 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J·T−1[3] 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB[3] 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN[3]Magnetic polarizability 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin −1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms
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Solar Wind
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with thermal energy between 1.5 and 10 keV. Embedded within the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field.[2] The solar wind varies in density, temperature and speed over time and over solar latitude and longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona, which in turn is a result of the coronal magnetic field. At a distance of more than a few solar radii from the Sun, the solar wind is supersonic and reaches speeds of 250 to 750 kilometers per second.[3] The flow of the solar wind is no longer supersonic at the termination shock
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