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Atkins Diet
The ATKINS DIET, also known as the ATKINS NUTRITIONAL APPROACH, is a low-carbohydrate fad diet promoted by Robert Atkins and inspired by a research paper he read in The Journal of the American Medical Association . The paper, titled "Weight Reduction", was published by Alfred W. Pennington in 1958. The Atkins diet is classified as a fad diet . There is only weak evidence supporting its effectiveness in helping achieve sustainable weight loss. CONTENTS * 1 Effectiveness * 2 Description * 3 Popularity * 4 Controversies * 5 Misconceptions about the diet * 6 Atkins Nutritionals * 7 Books * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links EFFECTIVENESS Further information: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets There is only weak evidence that the Atkins diet is effective in helping people achieve short-term weight loss, or that it is better than not dieting at all in the longer term
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Online Weight Loss Plans
WEIGHT LOSS, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness , refers to a reduction of the total body mass , due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss
Weight loss
can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained" weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition . Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as SLIMMING
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Dukan Diet
The DUKAN DIET is a protein -based commercial fad diet devised by Pierre Dukan . Dukan has been promoting his diet for over 30 years; it gained a wider audience after the 2000 publication of his book, The Dukan Diet, which has sold more than 7 million copies globally. The book has since been translated into 14 languages and published in 32 countries. The book was released in the United Kingdom in May 2010, and in the United States in April 2011. It is not clear the diet has any benefit and it carries risks to kidney and cardiovascular health. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Stages * 3 Related diets * 4 Media exposure * 5 Reception * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Further information: Obesity in France In 1975, Pierre Dukan was a general practitioner in Paris
Paris
when he was first confronted with a case of obesity
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KE Diet
KE DIET also known as FEEDING TUBE DIET is a diet in which an individual feeds a proprietary mixture through a feeding tube for a specific number of days. The dieter does not eat anything while on the diet. It has also been called the "Feeding Tube" diet in the United States . The diet carries several serious medical risks and is not effective in achieving long-term weight loss. CONTENTS * 1 Nature of the diet * 2 Safety and effectiveness * 3 In the media * 4 References * 5 External links NATURE OF THE DIETIn KE diet, a feeding tube is inserted through the nose of an individual down their oesophagus . At the other end of the tube is an electric pump. The only nourishment the patient receives is KE diet powder – an infusion of proteins , fats and micronutrients with no carbohydrates – mixed with water through the feeding tube. The patient only takes in about 800 calories a day, but the infusion is constant and the absence of carbohydrates curbs hunger
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Weight Watchers
WEIGHT WATCHERS INTERNATIONAL is an American company that offers various products and services to assist weight loss and maintenance. Founded in 1963 by Queens
Queens
, New York , homemaker Jean Nidetch , it now operates in about 30 countries around the world, generally under names that are local translations of “Weight Watchers”. The core philosophy behind Weight Watchers
Weight Watchers
programs is to use a science-driven approach to help participants lose weight by forming helpful habits, eating smarter, getting more exercise, and providing support. At 12 months Weight Watchers
Weight Watchers
is associated with 2.6% more weight loss than those who were in a control group. The term weight-watcher, in the same sense, had circulated publicly for several years before the company was formed
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American Heart Association
The AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States
United States
that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke . Originally formed in New York City
New York City
in 1924 as the ASSOCIATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND RELIEF OF HEART DISEASE, it is currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas
Texas
. The American Heart
Heart
Association is a national voluntary health agency. They are known for publishing standards on basic life support and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and in 2014 issued its first guidelines for preventing strokes in women. They are known also for operating a number of highly visible public service campaigns starting in the 1970s, and also operate a number of fundraising events
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New England Journal Of Medicine
THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society . It is among the most prestigious peer-reviewed medical journals as well as the oldest continuously published one. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Logo * 3 Notable articles * 4 Website * 5 Influence * 6 Ingelfinger rule * 7 Vioxx correction controversy * 8 Open access
Open access
policy * 9 Editors * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links HISTORY January 1814 edition of the Journal. In September 1811, John Collins Warren , a Boston physician, along with James Jackson, submitted a formal prospectus to establish the New England Journal of Medicine
Medicine
and Surgery and Collateral Branches of Science as a medical and philosophical journal
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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NPR
NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as NPR) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States. NPR
NPR
produces and distributes news and cultural programming. Individual public radio stations are not required to broadcast all NPR programs that are produced. Most public radio stations broadcast a mixture of NPR
NPR
programs, content from rival providers American Public Media , Public Radio International , Public Radio Exchange and WNYC Studios and locally produced programs. NPR's flagships are two drive time news broadcasts, Morning Edition
Morning Edition
and the afternoon All Things Considered ; both are carried by most NPR
NPR
member stations, and are two of the most popular radio programs in the country
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USA Today
USA TODAY is an internationally distributed American daily middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company . Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive in McLean , Virginia
Virginia
, United States. It is printed at 37 sites across the United States and at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local, regional and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, and its inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features
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The Smoking Gun
THE SMOKING GUN is a website that posts legal documents, arrest records, and police mugshots on a daily basis. The intent is to bring to the public light information that is damaging, shocking, outrageous, or amazing, yet also somewhat obscure or unreported by more mainstream media sources. Most of the site's content revolves around historical and current events, although it also features documents and photos relating to out-of-the-ordinary crimes and people. The name refers to the smoking gun metaphor , which is commonly used to describe an incriminating piece of evidence . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Investigations * 3 Commentators * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe website was founded in 1997 by William Bastone and Daniel Green , former reporters for The Village Voice , and graphic designer Barbara Glauber
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Matthias H. Tschöp
MATTHIAS H. TSCHöP (born April 7, 1967) is a German physician and scientist best known for novel therapeutic approaches to diabetes and obesity based on dissecting gut-brain communication. He is Alexander-von-Humboldt Professor and Chair of Metabolic Diseases at Technical University of Munich
Munich
. In addition, he serves as Director of Biomedicine at Helmholtz Pioneer Campus, Research Director of the Helmholtz Diabetes Center and Director of the Institute for Diabetes and Obesity at Helmholtz Zentrum München . Matthias Tschöp also holds an Adjunct Professorship at Yale University
Yale University
and was elected into the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 2013. CONTENTS * 1 Career and research * 2 Awards and recognition * 3 References * 4 External links CAREER AND RESEARCH Matthias Tschöp obtained an M.D
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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