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Athenian Acropolis
The ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; Modern Greek : Ακρόπολη Αθηνών, tr. Akrópoli Athenón ) is an ancient citadel located on an extremely rocky outcrop above the city of Athens
Athens
and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon
Parthenon
. The word acropolis comes from the Greek words ἄκρον (akron, "highest point, extremity") and πόλις (polis, "city"). Although there are many other acropoleis in Greece
Greece
, the significance of the Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification
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Megaron
The MEGARON (/ˈmɛɡəˌrɒn/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: μέγαρον), plural megara /ˈmɛɡərə/ , was the great hall in ancient Greek palace complexes. It was a rectangular hall , fronted by an open, two-columned porch, and a more or less central, open hearth vented though an oculus in the roof above it and surrounded by four columns. It was particularly Aegean , due to the open porch which was usually supported by columns. The entrance was the feature that helps to distinguish the megaron, due to its position, which was along the shorter wall so that the depth was larger than the width. There were often many rooms around the central Megaron, such as archive rooms, offices, oil-press rooms, workshops, potteries, shrines, corridors, armories, and storerooms for such goods as wine, oil and wheat
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Mycenaean Greece
MYCENAEAN GREECE (or MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION) was the last phase of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
(c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece
Greece
, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system. Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos
Pylos
, Tiryns
Tiryns
, Midea in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
, Orchomenos , Thebes , Athens
Athens
in Central Greece
Greece
and Iolcos in Thessaly
Thessaly
. The most prominent site was Mycenae
Mycenae
, in Argolid , to which the culture of this era owes its name
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Aegean Civilization
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION is a general term for the European Bronze
Bronze
Age civilizations of Greece
Greece
around the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete
Crete
, the Cyclades
Cyclades
and the Greek mainland. Crete
Crete
is associated with the Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
from the Early Bronze
Bronze
Age. The Cyclades
Cyclades
converge with the mainland during the Early Helladic ("Minyan ") period and with Crete
Crete
in the Middle Minoan period. From ca. 1450 BC (Late Helladic, Late Minoan), the Greek Mycenaean civilization
Mycenaean civilization
spreads to Crete
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Parapet
A PARAPET is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof , terrace , balcony , walkway or other structure . The word comes ultimately from the Italian parapetto (parare "to cover/defend" and petto "breast"). The German equivalent Brustwehr has the same meaning. Where extending above a roof, a parapet may simply be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a fire wall or party wall . Parapets were originally used to defend buildings from military attack, but today they are primarily used as guard rails and to prevent the spread of fires
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Homer
HOMER ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ὅμηρος , Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
Odyssey
, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature . The Iliad is set during the Trojan War
Trojan War
, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek states. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the journey home of Odysseus
Odysseus
, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy
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Attica
Coordinates : 38°05′0″N 23°30′0″E / 38.08333°N 23.50000°E / 38.08333; 23.50000 Attica Αττική Region of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Cape Sounion LOCATION Central Greece
Greece
MAJOR CITIES Athens
Athens
, Piraeus
Piraeus
DIALECTS Attic KEY PERIODS Athenian Empire (477–404 BC) Second Athenian Confederacy (378–338 BC) ATTICA (Greek : Αττική, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Attikḗ or Attikī́; Ancient Greek: or Modern: ) is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens
Athens
, the capital of present-day Greece
Greece
. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea

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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution "
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Acropolis (neighbourhood)
MAKRYGIANNI or MAKRIYANNI (Greek : Μακρυγιάννη; pronounced ) is a neighborhood of Athens
Athens
, Greece
Greece
. Also known as ACROPOLIS, it is located in the south side of Acropolis and bounded between the avenues Dionysiou Areopagitou and Syngrou . The district is named after Ioannis Makrygiannis , Greek general of the Greek War of Independence , who used to own a house and fields in the area. Opposite the house of Ioannis Makrygiannis a military hospital was built – known as Weiler Building after the architect who designed it. This building was later used as gendarmerie headquarters and a violent battle took place there during the Dekemvriana , in 1944. In the Makrygianni neighbourhood is located the new Acropolis Museum
Acropolis Museum
that was inaugurated in 2009. REFERENCES * ^ "Κτίριο Βάιλερ". athensattica.gr. Retrieved 5 April 2015
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Areopagus
The AREOPAGUS (/ˌæriˈɒpəɡəs/ ) is a prominent rock outcropping located northwest of the Acropolis
Acropolis
in Athens, Greece . Its English name is the composite form of the Greek name AREIOS PAGOS, translated " Ares
Ares
Rock" ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἄρειος Πάγος). In classical times, it functioned as the court for trying deliberate homicide. Ares
Ares
was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon
Poseidon
's son Halirrhothius (a typical example of an aetiological myth). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Modern references * 3 See also * 4 Footnotes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
view from Areopagus
Areopagus
hill. The origin of its name is not clear
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Snake
SNAKES are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder SERPENTES. Like all squamates , snakes are ectothermic , amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales . Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws . To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung . Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca . Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times indepenently via convergent evolution , leading to many lineages of legless lizards
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Cecrops I
CECROPS /ˈsiːˌkrɒps/ ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Κέκροψ, Kékrops; gen.: Κέκροπος) was a mythical king of Athens
Athens
who, according to Eusebius
Eusebius
reigned for fifty years. The name is not of Greek origin according to Strabo
Strabo
, or it might mean 'face with a tail': it is said that, born from the earth itself, he had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. He was the founder and the first king of Athens
Athens
itself, though preceded in the region by the earth-born king Actaeus
Actaeus
of Attica
Attica
. Cecrops was a culture hero , teaching the Athenians marriage , reading and writing , and ceremonial burial
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Odyssey
The ODYSSEY (/ˈɒdəsi/ ; Greek : Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced in Classical Attic ) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer
Homer
. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad , the other work ascribed to Homer. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
is fundamental to the modern Western canon ; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad
Iliad
is the oldest. Scholars believe the Odyssey
Odyssey
was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia , the Greek coastal region of Anatolia
Anatolia
. The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus
Odysseus
(known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca
Ithaca
, and his journey home after the fall of Troy
Troy

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Archaic Greece
ARCHAIC GREECE was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
and succeeded by the Classical period . The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning. According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture
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Tutelary Deity
A TUTELARY (also TUTELAR) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture or occupation. One type of tutelary deity is the genius , the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore
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Doric Order
The DORIC ORDER was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian . The Doric is most easily recognised by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns . It was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above. The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, and had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but later more restrained. Above a plain architrave , the complexity comes in the frieze , where the two features originally unique to the Doric, the triglyph and guttae , are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental
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