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Aten
Aten
Aten
(also Aton, Egyptian jtn) is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of the god Ra. The deified Aten
Aten
is the focus of the religion of Atenism
Atenism
established by Amenhotep IV, who later took the name Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(died ca. 1335 BCE) in worship and recognition of Aten. In his poem "Great Hymn to the Aten", Akhenaten
Akhenaten
praises Aten
Aten
as the creator, giver of life, and nurturing spirit of the world. Aten
Aten
does not have a Creation Myth or family but is mentioned in the Book
Book
of the Dead
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Emanationism
Emanationism is an idea in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems. Emanation, from the Latin emanare meaning "to flow from" or "to pour forth or out of", is the mode by which all things are derived from the first reality, or principle. All things are derived from the first reality or perfect God
God
by steps of degradation to lesser degrees of the first reality or God, and at every step the emanating beings are less pure, less perfect, less divine
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Stelae
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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How To Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs
How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs is a primer on understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs. The text was written by Mark Collier (Egyptologist), and Bill Manley, c. 1998.[1][2] The standard version of analytic Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
is based upon the 26 categories of the Gardiner's Sign List (about 700 signs), still the basic standard
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Dominic Montserrat
Dominic Alexander Sebastian Montserrat (2 January 1964 – 23 September 2004) was a British egyptologist and papyrologist.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Academic career 3 Selected works 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Montserrat studied Egyptology
Egyptology
at Durham University
Durham University
and received his PhD
PhD
in Classics
Classics
at University College London, specializing in Greek, Coptic and Egyptian Papyrology. Academic career[edit] From 1992 to 1999 he taught Classics
Classics
at the University of Warwick. Suffering since birth from hemophilia, his increasingly deteriorating health led Montserrat to resign from teaching in 1999 and take up a research post in the classics department of The Open University
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M. Lichtheim
Miriam Lichtheim (3 May 1914, Istanbul
Istanbul
– 27 March 2004, Jerusalem) was an Israeli translator of ancient Egyptian texts whose translations are still widely used. Biography[edit] In the 1930s, she studied under Hans Jakob Polotsky in the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In a paper of recollections about her teacher[1] she recalls that, at the beginning of the year, in Polotsky's Egyptian class there were four students; at the end, only she remained. In 1941, she travelled to the United States where she studied and received a Ph.D. in Egyptology from the University of Chicago. She worked as an academic librarian at Yale
Yale
University, and then at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she was Near East Bibliographer and Lecturer until her retirement in 1974. In 1982, she moved to Israel
Israel
where she taught at the Hebrew University
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The Egyptian
The Egyptian
The Egyptian
(Sinuhe egyptiläinen, Sinuhe the Egyptian) is a historical novel by Mika Waltari. It was first published in Finnish in 1945, and in an abridged English translation by Naomi Walford in 1949, apparently from Swedish rather than Finnish.[1] So far, it is the only Finnish novel to be adapted into a Hollywood film, which it was, in 1954. The Egyptian
The Egyptian
is the first and the most successful, of Waltari's great historical novels. It is set in Ancient Egypt, mostly during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
of the 18th Dynasty, whom some have claimed to be the first monotheistic ruler in the world.[2]Contents1 Summary 2 Writing process 3 Reception 4 Editions 5 ReferencesSummary[edit] The protagonist of the novel is the fictional character Sinuhe, the royal physician, who tells the story in exile after Akhenaten's fall and death
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Hugh Nibley
Hugh Winder Nibley (March 27, 1910 – February 24, 2005) was an American scholar and Mormon apologist who was a professor at Brigham Young University (BYU) for nearly 50 years. His apologist works, while not official positions of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), are highly regarded within the LDS community and mainly attempt to support the archaeological, linguistic, and historical claims of Joseph Smith.[citation needed] A prolific author and professor of Biblical and Mormon scripture at BYU, he was considered a polyglot.[2] Nibley wrote and lectured on LDS scripture and doctrinal topics, publishing many articles in LDS Church magazines.Contents1 Biography1.1 Social and political viewpoints2 Scholarship2.1 Scholarly criticism 2.2 Students3 Publications 4 Books about Nibley 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Hugh Nibley was born in Portland, Oregon, son of Alexander Nibley and Agnes Sloan
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/[2][3]) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.[4][5] Cursive hieroglyphs
Cursive hieroglyphs
were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III),[1] with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty
Second Dynasty
(28th century BC)
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Sail (hieroglyph)
The Ancient Egyptian Sail hieroglyph is Gardiner sign listed no. P5 for the sail of a ship. The hieroglyph shows a hoisted sail, curved because of wind filling it. It is used in Egyptian hieroglyphs as a determinative for words related to wind, air, breath, sailors, (as "nefu"), floods-(of the Nile), etc. Also an ideogram in 'puff', 'wind', Egyptian (tsh)3w-(ṯau).[1] Breath, in the Book of the Dead[edit] Because of the use of the word 'winds', the 'breath' concept became an equally important usage of the sail hieroglyph. The Nile current carried ships downstream-(north), but sometimes prevailing, or advantageous winds allowed upstream travel on the Nile. A replacement of the sekhem scepter held in the hand in vignettes from the Books of the Dead refers to obtaining life-giving 'breath' in the afterlife.[2] An example is Nakht, (Papyrus of Nakht, 18th-19th Dynasty), holding a large mast-on-a-staff, referring to Spell 38A, for living by air in the realm of the dead
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Thebes, Egypt
Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile
Nile
about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt
Egypt
mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia
Nubia
and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt
Egypt
during its heyday
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Nile River
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Syncretism
Syncretism
Syncretism
(/ˈsɪŋkrətɪzəm/) is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought. Syncretism
Syncretism
involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths
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