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Atari 2600 Hardware
The Atari 2600
Atari 2600
design has experienced many makeovers and revisions in its 14-year production history. The system also has a large number of controllers and third-party peripherals. CONTENTS * 1 Technical specifications * 2 Controllers * 3 Console models * 3.1 Six switch models * 3.1.1 CX2600 "Heavy Sixer" * 3.1.2 CX2600 "Light Sixer" * 3.2 Four switch models * 3.2.1 CX2600-A * 3.2.2 Atari 2500 * 3.2.3 Atari 2600
Atari 2600
* 3.2.4 Atari 2600
Atari 2600
Jr. * 4 Motherboard revisions * 5 Color palette * 6 Third-party peripherals * 7 References * 8 External links TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS * CPU: 1.19 MHz
MHz
MOS Technology 6507 * Audio + Video processor: TIA * Playfield resolution: 40 x 192 pixels ( NTSC
NTSC
)
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Circus Atari
CIRCUS (サーカス, Sākasu) is an arcade game released by Exidy in 1977 . The game is a re-themed variant of Atari 's Breakout , where the player controls a seesaw and clown in order to pop all the balloons in the level. The game has been copied and released under different names by numerous other companies in both the United States and Japan. CONTENTS * 1 Gameplay * 2 Clones * 2.1 Direct copies * 2.2 Modified versions * 2.3 Spinoffs * 2.4 Home clones * 3 Appearances in other media * 4 References * 5 External links GAMEPLAYThree rows of triangular balloons move along the top part of the screen, each overlaid with blue, green, and yellow (colors used in the original version), counting from the top row. A clown appears from the edge of the screen where there is a jumping board, and the player must move the seesaw located at the bottom of the screen so that the clown can bounce back off the seesaw once he jumps off from his starting position
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Computer Keyboard
In computing , a COMPUTER KEYBOARD is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch . Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape , interaction via teleprinter -style keyboards became the main input device for computers . A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys (buttons) and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol . However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters , numbers or signs (characters ), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. Despite the development of alternative input devices, such as the mouse , touchscreen , pen devices , character recognition and voice recognition , the keyboard remains the most commonly used device for direct (human) input of alphanumeric data into computers
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Star Raiders
STAR RAIDERS is a first-person shooter space combat simulator video game for the Atari 8-bit family of computers. It was written by Doug Neubauer , an Atari employee, and released in cartridge form by Atari in 1979. It was later ported to other Atari computer and game platforms. The game simulates 3D space combat between the player's ship and an invading fleet of alien "Zylon" vessels. Star Raiders was distinctive for its graphics , which, in addition to various map and long range scan views, provided forward and aft first-person views , with movement conveyed by a streaming 3D starfield as the player engaged enemy spacecraft. The game's attract mode , a simple streaming star field, was a common sight in computer stores of the early-1980s to show off the Atari computers' graphics capabilities. The game is commonly referred to as the platform's killer app
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Atari Mindlink
The ATARI MINDLINK is an unreleased video game controller for the Atari 2600 , originally intended for release in 1984. The Mindlink was unique in that its headband form factor controls the game by reading the myoneural signal voltage from the player's forehead. The player's forehead movements are read by infrared sensors and transferred as movement in the game. Specially supported games are similar to those that use the paddle controller, but with the Mindlink controller instead. Three games were in development for the Mindlink by its cancellation: Bionic Breakthrough, Telepathy, and Mind Maze. Bionic Breakthrough is basically a Breakout clone , controlled with the Mindlink. Mind Maze uses the Mindlink for a mimicry of ESP , to pretend to predict what is printed on cards. Testing showed that players frequently got headaches due to moving their eyebrows to play the game. None of these games were ever released in any other form. REFERENCES * ^ Top 5 Hardware Super Fails
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Breakout (arcade Game)
BREAKOUT is an arcade game developed and published by Atari, Inc. , released on May 13, 1976. It was conceptualized by Nolan Bushnell and Steve Bristow, influenced by the 1972 Atari arcade game Pong , and built by Steve Wozniak aided by Steve Jobs . The game was ported to multiple platforms and upgraded to video games such as Super Breakout. In addition, Breakout was the basis and inspiration for certain aspects of the Apple II personal computer. In the game, a layer of bricks lines the top third of the screen. A ball travels across the screen, bouncing off the top and side walls of the screen. When a brick is hit, the ball bounces away and the brick is destroyed. The player loses a turn when the ball touches the bottom of the screen. To prevent this from happening, the player has a movable paddle to bounce the ball upward, keeping it in play
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Pong
PONG is one of the earliest arcade video games and the first sports arcade video game. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics . While other arcade video games such as Computer Space came before it, Pong
Pong
was one of the first video games to reach mainstream popularity. The game was originally manufactured by Atari
Atari
, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong
Pong
as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari
Atari
co-founder Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey , which later resulted in a lawsuit against Atari. Surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work, Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney decided to manufacture the game
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Home Computer
HOME COMPUTERS were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC
IBM PC
, and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games , but they were also regularly used for word processing , doing homework, and programming
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Video Game Console
A VIDEO GAME CONSOLE is an electronic , digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is primarily used to distinguish a console machine primarily designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers . An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, display, game controller (joystick, buttons, etc.) and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles , handheld game consoles , microconsoles and dedicated consoles
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Sega Master System
The SEGA MASTER SYSTEM is a third-generation home video game console that was manufactured by Sega . It was originally released in 1985 as the SEGA MARK III in Japan. After being redesigned prior to its North American launch, the console was renamed Master System and released in 1986 in North America, 1987 in Europe, and 1989 in Brazil. The Master System was also released in Japan in 1987 with additional features over the overseas models. Both the Mark III and the original Master System models could play with both cartridges (or "Mega Cartridges", as they were officially called) and the credit card-sized Sega Cards , which retailed at lower prices than cartridges but had lower storage capacity; the Master System II and later models did not have the card slot
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Sega Genesis
The SEGA GENESIS, known as the MEGA DRIVE in most regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console which was developed and sold by Sega
Sega
Enterprises, Ltd. The Genesis was Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System . Sega
Sega
first released the console as the Mega Drive in Japan
Japan
in 1988, followed by a North American debut under the Genesis moniker in 1989. In 1990, the console was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, by Ozisoft in Australasia , and by Tectoy in Brazil. In South Korea, the systems were distributed by Samsung
Samsung
and were known as the SUPER GAM*BOY, and later the SUPER ALAD DIN
DIN
BOY
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Motion Controller
A MOTION CONTROLLER is a type of game controller that uses accelerometers or other sensors to track motion and provide input. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable controllers * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYMotion controllers using accelerometers are used as controllers for video games , which was publicly introduced in 1981 by Datasoft 's "Le Stick" controller for the le, which uses accelerometers to detect its approximate orientation and acceleration, and serves an image sensor, so it can be used as a pointing device. It was followed by other similar devices, including the ASUS Eee Stick , Sony
Sony
PlayStation Move (which also uses magnetometers to track the Earth's magnetic field and computer vision via the PlayStation Eye to aid in position tracking), Joy-Con , and HP Swing
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Sears, Roebuck And Co.
SEARS, short name for SEARS, ROEBUCK "> Richard Warren Sears Richard Warren Sears was a railroad station agent in North Redwood, Minnesota , when he received from a Chicago
Chicago
jeweler an impressive shipment of watches which were unwanted by a local jeweler. Sears purchased them, then sold the watches for a considerable profit to other station agents, then ordered more for resale. Soon he started a business selling watches through mail order catalogs. The next year, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he met Alvah C. Roebuck, who joined him in the business. Farmers did business in small rural towns. Before the Sears
Sears
catalog, farmers typically bought supplies (often at high prices and on credit) from local general stores with narrow selections of goods. Prices were negotiated, and depended on the storekeeper's estimate of a customer's creditworthiness
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De Facto Standard
A DE FACTO STANDARD is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market ). De facto is a Latin phrase that means in fact (literally by or from fact) in the sense of "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established", as opposed to de jure . The term de facto standard is used in contrast with obligatory standards (also known as "de jure standards"); or to express the dominant voluntary standard, when there is more than one standard available for the same use. In social sciences , a voluntary standard that is also a de facto standard is a typical solution to a coordination problem . The choice of a de facto standard tends to be stable in situations in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions
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Video (magazine)
VIDEO is a discontinued American consumer electronics magazine that was published from 1977 to 1999 by Reese Communications with a focus on video and audio devices. The magazine showcases new audiovisual products, analyzes current practices and trends in the field, and provides critical reviews of newly marketed products and equipment. During its early years, it competed fiercely with contemporary journals like Video
Video
Review and Video
Video
Buyer's Review—ultimately culminating in a 1980 trademark infringement suit over use of the term " Video
Video
Buyer's Guide". In March 1995, Video
Video
was acquired from Reese by Hachette Filipacchi , and in 1999 it was merged with their bi-monthly Sound & Image magazine to become Sound ">'s first advertising director)
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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