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Asynchronous Start-stop
Asynchronous serial communication is a form of serial communication in which the communicating endpoints' interfaces are not continuously synchronized by a common clock signal. Instead of a common synchronization signal, the data stream contains synchronization information in form of start and stop signals, before and after each unit of transmission, respectively
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Byte
The byte (/baɪt/) is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer[1][2] and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size – byte-sizes from 1[3] to 48 bits[4] are known to have been used in the past. Early character encoding systems often used six bits, and machines using six-bit and nine-bit bytes were common into the 1960s. These machines most commonly had memory words of 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 bits, corresponding to two, four, six, eight or 10 six-bit bytes
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Endianness
Endianness
Endianness
refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Universal Asynchronous Receiver/transmitter
A universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (UART /ˈjuːɑːrt/) is a computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable. The electric signaling levels and methods are handled by a driver circuit external to the UART. A UART is usually an individual (or part of an) integrated circuit (IC) used for serial communications over a computer or peripheral device serial port. UARTs are now commonly included in microcontrollers
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Synchronous Serial Communication
Synchronous serial communication describes a serial communication protocol in which "data is sent in a continuous stream at constant rate."[1] Synchronous communication requires that the clocks in the transmitting and receiving devices are synchronized – running at the same rate – so the receiver can sample the signal at the same time intervals used by the transmitter. No start or stop bits are required. For this reason "synchronous communication permits more information to be passed over a circuit per unit time"[2] than asynchronous serial communication
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Degree Of Start-stop Distortion
In telecommunication, the term degree of start-stop distortion has the following meanings:In asynchronous serial communication data transmission, the ratio of (a) the absolute value of the maximum measured difference between the actual and theoretical intervals separating any significant instant of modulation (or demodulation) from the significant instant of the start element immediately preceding it to (b) the unit interval. The highest absolute value of individual distortion affecting the significant instants of a start-stop modulation.The degree of distortion of a start-stop modulation (or demodulation) is usually expressed as a percentage
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Flow Control (data)
In data communications, flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver. It provides a mechanism for the receiver to control the transmission speed, so that the receiving node is not overwhelmed with data from transmitting node. Flow control should be distinguished from congestion control, which is used for controlling the flow of data when congestion has actually occurred.[1] Flow control mechanisms can be classified by whether or not the receiving node sends feedback to the sending node. Flow control is important because it is possible for a sending computer to transmit information at a faster rate than the destination computer can receive and process it
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Network Packet
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A packet consists of control information and user data,[1] which is also known as the payload. Control information provides data for delivering the payload, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information
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Point-to-Point Protocol
In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer (layer 2) communications protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It connects two routers directly without any host or any other networking device in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption,[1] and compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET
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Frame (networking)
A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication. In packet switched systems, a frame is a simple container for a single network packet. In other telecommunications systems, a frame is a repeating structure supporting time-division multiplexing. A frame typically includes frame synchronization features consisting of a sequence of bits or symbols that indicate to the receiver, the beginning, and end of the payload data within the stream of symbols or bits it receives. If a receiver is connected to the system in the middle of a frame transmission, it ignores the data until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence.Contents1 Packet switching 2 Time-division multiplex 3 See also 4 ReferencesPacket switching[edit] In the OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking, a frame is the protocol data unit at the data link layer
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Physical Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.[1] This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network.[2] It is a fundamental layer underlying the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.[citation needed] The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical data link connecting network nodes. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a transmission medium. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium
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Least-significant Bit
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value
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Bulletin Board System
A bulletin board system or BBS
BBS
(also called Computer
Computer
Bulletin Board Service, CBBS[1]) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users through email, public message boards, and sometimes via direct chatting. Many BBSes also offer on-line games in which users can compete with each other, and BBSes with multiple phone lines often provide chat rooms, allowing users to interact with each other. Bulletin board systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Web, social networks, and other aspects of the Internet. Low-cost, high-performance modems drove the use of online services and BBSes through the early 1990s
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Time-sharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.[1] Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one,[2] and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications.Contents1 History1.1 Batch processing 1.2 Time-sharing 1.3 Development 1.4 Time-sharing <
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Modem
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Modems are generally classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit(s), sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B(s)). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud
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