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Asymptomatic
In medicine , a disease is considered ASYMPTOMATIC if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms . A condition might be ASYMPTOMATIC if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic
infections are also called subclinical infections . Other diseases (such as mental illnesses ) might be considered SUBCLINICAL if they present some but not all of the symptoms required for a clinical diagnosis. The term CLINICALLY SILENT is also used. Knowing that a condition is asymptomatic is important because: * It may develop symptoms later and so require watch and wait or early treatment. * It may resolve itself or become benign . * It is required that a person undergoes treatment so it does not cause later medical problems such as high blood pressure and hyperlipidaemia
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Incidental Findings
INCIDENTAL FINDINGS are previously undiagnosed medical or psychiatric conditions that are discovered unintentionally and are unrelated to the current medical or psychiatric condition which is being treated or for which tests are being performed. Incidental findings
Incidental findings
may be uncovered in a variety of settings such as in test subjects during medical research , during the course of an autopsy , or during genetic testing . CONTENTS * 1 Ethical issues * 2 Incidentalomas * 3 In neuroimaging * 3.1 Pituitary adenomas * 4 References ETHICAL ISSUES a report by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues on incidental findings The ethical issues around responding to incidental findings are complex. INCIDENTALOMASAn incidentaloma is a tumor found by coincidence which is often benign and does not cause any clinically significant symptoms ; however a small percentage do turn out to be malignant
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X-ray
X-RAYS make up X-RADIATION, a form of electromagnetic radiation . Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers , corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV . X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays . In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning RöNTGEN RADIATION, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen , who usually is credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s)
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Multiple Sclerosis
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms , including physical, mental , and sometimes psychiatric problems. Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation , or trouble with coordination. MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms). Between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely; however, permanent neurological problems often remain, especially as the disease advances. While the cause is not clear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin -producing cells
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Cytomegalovirus
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales , in the family Herpesviridae
Herpesviridae
, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae . Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts. There are currently eight species in this genus including the type species, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human herpesvirus 5, HHV-5), which is the species that infects humans. Diseases associated with HHV-5 include glandular fever , and pneumonia . In the medical literature , most mentions of CMV without further specification refer implicitly to human CMV. Human
Human
CMV is the most studied of all cytomegaloviruses
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Beri-beri
BERIBERI refers to symptoms caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency . Beriberi has conventionally been divided into three separate entities, relating to the body system mainly involved (peripheral nervous system or cardiovascular) or age of person (like infantile). Beriberi is one of several thiamine-deficiency related conditions, which may occur concurrently, including Wernicke\'s encephalopathy (mainly affecting the central nervous system), Korsakoff\'s syndrome (amnesia with additional psychiatric manifestations), and Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome
(with both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms). Historically, beriberi has been common in regions where polished or white rice forms a major part of the diet, which has its husk removed to extend its shelf life and palatability but has the side effect of removing the primary source of thiamine
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Intravenous
INTRAVENOUS THERAPY is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein . Intravenous (IV) means "within vein". Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as DRIPS. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Intravenous therapy may be used for fluid administration (such as correcting dehydration ), to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications and for blood transfusions
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Cancer
CANCER is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors , which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss , and a change in bowel movements . While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco
Tobacco
use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity , poor diet , lack of physical activity , and excessive drinking of alcohol . Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B , hepatitis C and human papillomavirus infection . These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell
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HIV
The HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus ) that causes HIV
HIV
infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV
HIV
is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
HIV
subtype. Infection with HIV
HIV
occurs by the transfer of blood , pre-ejaculate , semen , vaginal fluids , or breast milk . Within these bodily fluids, HIV
HIV
is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells
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Hypertension
HYPERTENSION (HTN or HT), also known as HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease , stroke , heart failure , peripheral vascular disease , vision loss , and chronic kidney disease . High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure . About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt, excess body weight , smoking , and alcohol
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Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA (ITP) is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as isolated low platelet count (thrombocytopenia ) with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. It causes a characteristic purpuric rash and an increased tendency to bleed. Two distinct clinical syndromes manifest as an acute condition in children and a chronic condition in adults. The acute form often follows an infection and has a spontaneous resolution within two months. Chronic immune thrombocytopenia persists longer than six months with a specific cause being unknown. ITP is an autoimmune disease with antibodies detectable against several platelet surface antigens . ITP is diagnosed by a low platelet count in a complete blood count (a common blood test ). However, since the diagnosis depends on the exclusion of other causes of a low platelet count, additional investigations (such as a bone marrow biopsy ) may be necessary in some cases
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Essential Fructosuria
ESSENTIAL FRUCTOSURIA, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hepatic fructokinase , is a clinically benign condition characterized by the incomplete metabolism of fructose in the liver, leading to its excretion in urine. Fructokinase (sometimes called ketohexokinase) is the first enzyme involved in the degradation of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate in the liver. This defective degradation does not cause any clinical symptoms, fructose is either excreted unchanged in the urine or metabolized to fructose-6-phosphate by alternate pathways in the body, most commonly by hexokinase in adipose tissue and muscle. CONTENTS * 1 Cause * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 References CAUSE Essential fructosuria
Essential fructosuria
is a genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Mutations in the KHK gene, located on chromosome 2p23.3-23.2 are responsible. The incidence of essential fructosuria has been estimated at 1:130,000
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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS (or MYELOID or MYELOCYTIC) LEUKEMIA (CML), also known as CHRONIC GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells . It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils , eosinophils and basophils ) and their precursors is found. It is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome . CML is now largely treated with targeted drugs called tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which have led to dramatically improved long-term survival rates since the introduction of the first such agent in 2001
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Syndrome
A SYNDROME is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other. The word derives from the Greek σύνδρομον, meaning "concurrence". In some instances, a syndrome is so closely linked with a pathogenesis or cause that the words syndrome, disease, and disorder end up being used interchangeably for them. This is especially true of inherited syndromes. For example, Down syndrome
Down syndrome
, Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome , and Andersen syndrome are disorders with known pathogeneses, so each is more than just a set of signs and symptoms, despite the syndrome nomenclature. In other instances, a syndrome is not specific to only one disease. For example, toxic shock syndrome can be caused by various toxins; premotor syndrome can be caused by various brain lesions; and premenstrual syndrome is not a disease but simply a set of symptoms
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Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
WERNICKE–KORSAKOFF SYNDROME (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke\'s encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff\'s syndrome . Due to the close relationship between these two disorders, people with either are usually diagnosed with WKS, as a single syndrome. The cause of the disorder is thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency , which can cause a range of disorders including beriberi , Wernicke's encephalopathy, and Korsakoff's psychosis. These disorders may manifest together or separately. WKS is usually secondary to alcohol abuse . It mainly causes vision changes, ataxia and impaired memory. Wernicke's encephalopathy and WKS are most commonly seen in people who are alcoholic , and only 20% of cases are identified before death. This failure in diagnosis of WE and thus treatment of the disease leads to death in approximately 20% of cases, while 75% are left with permanent brain damage associated with WKS
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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
LICHEN SCLEROSUS (LS) is a skin disease of unknown cause, commonly appearing as whitish patches on the genitals, which can affect any body part of any person but has a strong preference for the genitals (penis, vulva) and is also known as BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS (BXO) when it affects the penis. Lichen sclerosus
Lichen sclerosus
is not contagious. There is a well-documented increase of skin cancer risk in LS, potentially improvable with treatment. LS in adult age is normally incurable, but improvable with treatment, and often gets progressively worse
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