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Asymptomatic
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic
infections are also called subclinical infections. Other diseases (such as mental illnesses) might be considered subclinical if they present some but not all of the symptoms required for a clinical diagnosis
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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
Lichen sclerosus
Lichen sclerosus
(LS) is a skin disease of unknown cause, commonly appearing as whitish patches on the genitals, which can affect any body part of any person but has a strong preference for the genitals (penis, vulva) and is also known as balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) when it affects the penis. Lichen sclerosus
Lichen sclerosus
is not contagious. There is a well-documented increase of skin cancer risk in LS, potentially improvable with treatment
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Beri-beri
Thiamine
Thiamine
deficiency, also known as beriberi, is a condition that occurs due to not enough thiamine (vitamin B1).[1] There are two main types: wet beriberi, and dry beriberi.[1] Wet beriberi results in a fast heart rate, shortness of breath, and leg swelling.[1] Dry beriberi results in numbness of the hands and feet, confusion, trouble moving the legs, and pain.[1] A form with loss of appetite and constipation may also occur.[3] Risk factors include a diet of mostly white rice, alcoholism, dialysis, chronic diarrhea, and taking high doses of diuretics.[1][4] Rarely it may be due to a genetic condition which results in difficulties absorbing thiamine foun
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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
(CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and their precursors is found. It is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is largely treated with targeted drugs called tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which have led to dramatic improved long-term survival rates since 2001. These drugs have revolutionized treatment of this disease and allow most patients to have a good quality of life when compared to the former chemotherapy drugs
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Hypertension
Hypertension
Hypertension
(HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[10] High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms.[1] Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.[2][3][4][11] High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure.[5] About 90–95% of cases are primary, defin
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CT Scan
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray
X-ray
measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Other terms include computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to further generate a three-dimensional volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional radiographic images taken around a single axis of rotation.[2] Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the most common application of X-ray
X-ray
CT
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Syndrome
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.[1] The word derives from the Greek σύνδρομον, meaning "concurrence".[2] In some instances, a syndrome is so closely linked with a pathogenesis or cause that the words syndrome, disease, and disorder end up being used interchangeably for them. This is especially true of inherited syndromes. For example, Down syndrome, Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, and Andersen syndrome
Andersen syndrome
are disorders with known pathogeneses, so each is more than just a set of signs and symptoms, despite the syndrome nomenclature. In other instances, a syndrome is not specific to only one disease
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HIV
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV
HIV
infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[1][2] AIDS
AIDS
is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV
HIV
is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
HIV
subtype.[3] In most cases, HIV
HIV
is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Incidental Findings
Incidental findings are previously undiagnosed medical or psychiatric conditions that are discovered unintentionally and during evaluation for a medical or psychiatric condition. Such findings may occur in a variety of settings, including routine medical care, during biomedical research,[1] during post-mortem autopsy,[2] or during genetic testing.[3]a report by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues on incidental findings[4]Contents1 Medical imaging1.1 Neuroimaging2 Genetic testing 3 ReferencesMedical imaging[edit] Main article: Incidental imaging finding An incidentaloma is a tumor found by coincidence which is often benign and does not cause any clinically significant symptoms; however a small percentage do turn out to be malignant
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
(MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[5][8][9] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up
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Essential Fructosuria
Essential fructosuria, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hepatic fructokinase, is a clinically benign condition characterized by the incomplete metabolism of fructose in the liver, leading to its excretion in urine.[1] Fructokinase (sometimes called ketohexokinase) is the first enzyme involved in the degradation of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate in the liver.[2] This defective degradation does not cause any clinical symptoms, fructose is either excreted unchanged in the urine or metabolized to fructose-6-phosphate by alternate pathways in the body, most commonly by hexokinase in adipose tissue and muscle.[1]Contents1 Cause 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 ReferencesCause[edit] Essential fructosuria
Essential fructosuria
is a genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.[2] Mutations in the KHK gene, located on chromosome 2p23.3-23.2 are responsible
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Intravenous
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
(IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips
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Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus
(CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts. There are currently eight species in this genus including the type species, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human herpesvirus 5, HHV-5), which is the species that infects humans. Diseases associated with HHV-5 include glandular fever, and pneumonia.[2][3] In the medical literature, most mentions of CMV without further specification refer implicitly to human CMV
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Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome
(WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke's encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy
(WE) and Korsakoff's syndrome. Due to the close relationship between these two disorders, people with either are usually diagnosed with WKS, as a single syndrome. The cause of the disorder is thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, which can cause a range of disorders including beriberi, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and Korsakoff's psychosis. These disorders may manifest together or separately. WKS is usually secondary to alcohol abuse. It mainly causes vision changes, ataxia and impaired memory.[1] Wernicke's encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy
and WKS are most commonly seen in people who are alcoholic, and only 20% of cases are identified before death
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