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Asymmetric Multiprocessing
In an asymmetric multiprocessing system (AMP), not all CPUs are treated equally; for example, a system might allow (either at the hardware or operating system level) only one CPU to execute operating system code or might allow only one CPU to perform I/O operations. Other AMP systems would allow any CPU to execute operating system code and perform I/O operations, so that they were symmetric with regard to processor roles, but attached some or all peripherals to particular CPUs, so that they were asymmetric with respect to the peripheral attachment. Asymmetric multiprocessing
Asymmetric multiprocessing
was the only method for handling multiple CPUs before symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) was available. It has also been used to provide less expensive options[1] on systems where SMP was available
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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3B20C
The 3B series computers were a line of micro-programmable minicomputers produced by AT&T Computer Systems' Western Electric subsidiary.Contents1 3B High-availability processors 2 General-purpose computers2.1 3B20S 2.2 3B2 2.3 3B5 2.4 3B153 3B1 desktop workstation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links3B High-availability processors[edit] The original series of 3B computers include the models 3B20C, 3B20D, 3B21D, and 3B21E. The 3B (3B20D/3B20C/3B21D/3B21E) is a 32-bit microprogrammed duplex (redundant) high availability processor unit with a real-time operating system. It is used in the telecommunications environment and was first produced in the late 1970s at the WECo factory in Lisle, Illinois. It uses the Duplex Multi Environment Real Time (DMERT) operating system which was renamed UNIX-RTR (Real Time Reliable) in 1982
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Pipeline (computing)
In computing, a pipeline is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one. The elements of a pipeline are often executed in parallel or in time-sliced fashion; in that case, some amount of buffer storage is often inserted between elements. Computer-related pipelines include:Instruction pipelines, such as the classic RISC pipeline, which are used in central processing units (CPUs) to allow overlapping execution of multiple instructions with the same circuitry. The circuitry is usually divided up into stages and each stage processes one instruction at a time
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Preemption (computing)
In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume, other tasks in the system.Contents1 User mode and kernel mode 2 Preemptive multitasking2.1 Time slice 2.2 System support3 See also 4 ReferencesUser mode and kernel mode[edit] See also: Kernel preemption In any given system design, some operations performed by the system may not be preemptible. This usually applies to kernel functions and service interrupts which, if not permitted to run to completion, would tend to produce race conditions resulting in deadlock
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Hardware Scout
Hardware scout is a technique that uses otherwise idle processor execution resources to perform prefetching during cache misses. When a thread is stalled by a cache miss, the processor pipeline checkpoints the register file, switches to runahead mode, and continues to issue instructions from the thread that is waiting for memory. The thread of execution in run-ahead mode is known as a scout thread. When the data returns from memory, the processor restores the register file contents from the checkpoint, and switches back to normal execution mode.The computation during run-ahead mode is discarded by the processor; nevertheless, scouting provides speedup because memory level parallelism (MLP) is increased. The cache lines brought into the cache hierarchy are often used by the processor again when it switches back to normal mode.Contents1 Rock processor scout 2 Scouting vs
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Tegra 3
Tegra is a system on a chip (SoC) series developed by Nvidia for mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistants, and mobile Internet devices. The Tegra integrates an ARM architecture central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit (GPU), northbridge, southbridge, and memory controller onto one package. Early Tegra SoCs are designed as efficient multimedia processors, while more recent models emphasize gaming performance without sacrificing power efficiency.[citation needed]Contents1 History 2 Specifications2.1 Tegra APX 2.2 Tegra 6xx 2.3 Tegra 22.3.1 Devices2.4 Tegra 32.4.1 Devices2.5 Tegra 42.5.1 Devices 2.5.2 Tegra 4i2.5.2.1 Devices2.6 Tegra K12.6.1 Devices2.7 Tegra X12.7.1 Devices2.8 Tegra X22.8.1 Devices2.9 Xavier2.9.1 Devices2.10 Orin3 Comparison 4 Software support4.1 Linux 4.2 QNX5 Similar platforms 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Tegra APX 2500 was announced on February 12, 2008
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Big.LITTLE
ARM big.LITTLE
ARM big.LITTLE
is a heterogeneous computing architecture developed by ARM Holdings, coupling relatively battery-saving and slower processor cores (LITTLE) with relatively more powerful and power-hungry ones (big). Typically, only one "side" or the other will be active at once, but since all the cores have access to the same memory regions, workloads can be swapped between Big and Little cores on the fly.[1] The intention is to create a multi-core processor that can adjust better to dynamic computing needs and use less power than clock scaling alone
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Heterogeneous Computing
Heterogeneous computing refers to systems that use more than one kind of processor or cores. These systems gain performance or energy efficiency not just by adding the same type of processors, but by adding dissimilar coprocessors, usually incorporating specialized processing capabilities to handle particular tasks.[1]Contents1 Heterogeneity 2 Challenges 3 Example platforms 4 See also 5 ReferencesHeterogeneity[edit] Usually heterogeneity in the context of computing referred[when?] to different instruction-set architectures (ISA), where the main processor has one and other processors have another - usually a very different - architecture (maybe more than one), not just a different microarchitecture (floating point number processing is a special case of this - not usually referred to as heterogeneous)
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Giant Lock
In operating systems, a giant lock, also known as a big-lock or kernel-lock, is a lock that may be used in the kernel to provide concurrency control required by symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems. A giant lock is a solitary global lock that is held whenever a thread enters kernel space and released when the thread returns to user space; a system call is the archetypal example. In this model, threads in user space can run concurrently on any available processors or processor cores, but no more than one thread can run in kernel space; any other threads that try to enter kernel space are forced to wait. In other words, the giant lock eliminates all concurrency in kernel space. By isolating the kernel from concurrency, many parts of the kernel no longer need to be modified to support SMP. However, as in giant-lock SMP systems only one processor can run the kernel code at a time, performance for applications spending significant amounts of time in the kernel is not much improved
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Systolic Array
In parallel computer architectures, a systolic array is a homogeneous network of tightly coupled data processing units (DPUs) called cells or nodes. Each node or DPU independently computes a partial result as a function of the data received from its upstream neighbors, stores the result within itself and passes it downstream. Systolic arrays were invented by Richard P. Brent and H. T. Kung, who developed them to compute greatest common divisors of integers and polynomials.[1][not in citation given] They are sometimes classified as multiple-instruction single-data (MISD) architectures under Flynn's taxonomy, but this classification is questionable because a strong argument can be made to distinguish systolic arrays from any of Flynn's four categories: SISD, SIMD, MISD, MIMD, as discussed later in this article. The parallel input data flows through a network of hard-wired processor nodes, which combine, process, merge or sort the input data into a derived result
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Computer Network
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes (data links.) These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as WiFi. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.[1] Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other
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IBM System/370 Model 168
The IBM
IBM
System/370
System/370
Model 168 (and the Model 158)[1])were both announced August 2, 1972[2] Prior 370 systems had not "offered virtual storage capability, which was to be a hallmark of the 370 line," and some said that the 168 and 158 were the first "real 370" products.[3] By contrast, "in 1972, the
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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