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Astropulse
ASTROPULSE is a distributed computing project that uses volunteers around the globe to lend their unused computing power to search for primordial black holes , pulsars , and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). Volunteer resources are harnessed through Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform. In 1999, the Space Sciences Laboratory launched SETI@home , which would rely on massively parallel computation on desktop computers scattered around the world. SETI@home utilizes recorded data from the Arecibo radio telescope and searches for narrow-bandwidth radio signals from space, signifying the presence of extraterrestrial technology. It was soon recognized that this same data might be scoured for other signals of value to the astronomy and physics community
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Milky Way
The MILKY WAY is the galaxy that contains our Solar System
Solar System
. The descriptive "milky" is derived from the appearance from Earth
Earth
of the galaxy – a band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye . The term Milky Way
Milky Way
is a translation of the Latin
Latin
via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (galaxías kýklos, "milky circle"). From Earth, the Milky Way
Milky Way
appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way
Milky Way
contained all the stars in the Universe
Universe

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Software Developer
A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming , and testing of computer software . Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer , software analyst , and software engineer . According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development , and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects , those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system. In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Hawking Radiation
HAWKING RADIATION also known as HAWKING-ZEL\'DOVICH RADIATION is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes , due to quantum effects near the event horizon . It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
, who provided a theoretical argument for its existence in 1974, and sometimes also after Jacob Bekenstein
Jacob Bekenstein
, who predicted that black holes should have a finite entropy . Hawking's work followed his visit to Moscow
Moscow
in 1973 where the Soviet scientists Yakov Zeldovich and Alexei Starobinsky showed him that, according to the quantum mechanical uncertainty principle , rotating black holes should create and emit particles. Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is therefore also known as BLACK HOLE EVAPORATION
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Parsec
The PARSEC (symbol: PC) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System
Solar System
. A parsec is the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one arcsecond . One parsec is equal to about 3.26 light-years (31 trillion km or 19 trillion miles) in length. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri , is about 1.3 parsecs (4.2 light-years) from the Sun
Sun
. Most of the stars visible to the unaided eye in the night sky are within 500 parsecs of the Sun. The parsec unit was likely first suggested in 1913 by the British astronomer Herbert Hall Turner . Named as a portmanteau of the PARallax of one arcSECond, it was defined so as to make calculations of astronomical distances quick and easy for astronomers from only their raw observational data
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Interstellar Medium
In astronomy , the INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy . This matter includes gas in ionic , atomic , and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays . It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space . The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation , is the INTERSTELLAR RADIATION FIELD. The interstellar medium is composed of multiple phases, distinguished by whether matter is ionic, atomic, or molecular, and the temperature and density of the matter. The interstellar medium is composed primarily of hydrogen followed by helium with trace amounts of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen comparatively to hydrogen. The thermal pressures of these phases are in rough equilibrium with one another. Magnetic fields and turbulent motions also provide pressure in the ISM, and are typically more important dynamically than the thermal pressure is
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Chirp
A CHIRP is a signal in which the frequency increases (up-chirp) or decreases (down-chirp) with time. In some sources, the term chirp is used interchangeably with SWEEP SIGNAL. It is commonly used in sonar and radar , but has other applications, such as in spread-spectrum communications. In spread-spectrum usage, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices such as reflective array compressors (RACs) are often used to generate and demodulate the chirped signals. In optics , ultrashort laser pulses also exhibit chirp, which, in optical transmission systems, interacts with the dispersion properties of the materials, increasing or decreasing total pulse dispersion as the signal propagates. The name is a reference to the chirping sound made by birds; see bird vocalization
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Gamma Rays
GAMMA RAYS (also called GAMMA RADIATION), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or {displaystyle gamma } ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei . It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy . Paul Villard , a French chemist and physicist , discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium . In 1903, Ernest Rutherford named this radiation gamma rays. Rutherford had previously discovered two other types of radioactive decay, which he named alpha and beta rays . Gamma
Gamma
rays are able to ionize other atoms (ionizing radiation ), and are thus biologically hazardous. The decay of an atomic nucleus from a high energy state to a lower energy state, a process called gamma decay, produces gamma radiation
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Maura McLaughlin
MAURA MCLAUGHLIN PH.D. is currently an astrophysics professor at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia . She holds a Bachelor's of Science degree from Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
and a Ph.D. from Cornell University
Cornell University
. She is known for her work on furthering the research on gravitational waves and for her dedication to the Pulsar Search Collaboratory. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Work * 3 Awards * 4 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONMcLaughlin grew up in Oreland, Pennsylvania . She received a Bachelor's of Science degree in Astronomy
Astronomy
and Astrophysics
Astrophysics
from the Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
in 1994. She obtained a Ph.D
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Quasar
A QUASAR (/ˈkweɪzɑːr/ ) (also QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT or QSO) is an active galactic nucleus of very high luminosity . A quasar consists of a supermassive black hole surrounded by an orbiting accretion disk of gas. As gas in the accretion disk falls toward the black hole, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation . Quasars emit energy across the electromagnetic spectrum and can be observed at radio , infrared , visible , ultraviolet , and X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths. The most powerful quasars have luminosities exceeding 1041 W , thousands of times greater than the luminosity of a large galaxy such as the Milky Way
Milky Way
. The term "quasar" originated as a contraction of "quasi-stellar radio source", because quasars were first identified as sources of radio-wave emission, and in photographic images at visible wavelengths they resembled point-like stars
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Parkes Observatory
The PARKES OBSERVATORY (also known informally as "The Dish" ) is a radio telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes , New South Wales
New South Wales
, Australia
Australia
. It was one of several radio antennas used to receive live, televised images of the Apollo 11
Apollo 11
moon landing on 20 July 1969. Its scientific contributions over the decades led the ABC to describe it as "the most successful scientific instrument ever built in Australia" after 50 years of operation. The Parkes Observatory
Parkes Observatory
is run by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) as part of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) network of radio telescopes
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ArXiv
The ARXIV (pronounced "archive ") is a repository of electronic preprints , known as e-prints , of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics , physics , astronomy , computer science , quantitative biology , statistics , and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008, and hit a million by the end of 2014. By 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Peer review
Peer review
* 3 Submission formats * 4 Access * 5 Copyright status of files * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic . At the time, HTML forms were a new technology
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Karl Jansky
KARL GUTHE JANSKY (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950) was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves emanating from the Milky Way
Milky Way
. He is considered one of the founding figures of radio astronomy . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Radio astronomy * 3 Follow-up * 4 Legacy and death * 5 Selected writings * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEKarl Guthe Jansky was born in what was then the Territory of Oklahoma where his father, Cyril M. Jansky, was Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
at Norman . Cyril M. Jansky , born in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
of Czech immigrants, had started teaching at the age of sixteen
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Radio Frequency
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7004200000000000000♠20 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz , roughly the frequencies used in radio communication . The term does not have an official definition, and different sources specify slightly different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS ). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Jodrell Bank Observatory
The JODRELL BANK OBSERVATORY (originally the JODRELL BANK EXPERIMENTAL STATION, then the NUFFIELD RADIO ASTRONOMY LABORATORIES from 1966 to 1999; /ˈdʒɒdrəl/ ) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes , and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
Astrophysics
at the University of Manchester . The observatory was established in 1945 by Sir Bernard Lovell , a radio astronomer at the University of Manchester who wanted to investigate cosmic rays after his work on radar during the Second World War. It has since played an important role in the research of meteors , quasars , pulsars , masers and gravitational lenses , and was heavily involved with the tracking of space probes at the start of the Space Age . The managing director of the observatory is Professor Simon Garrington
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