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Astronomical Chronology
Astronomical chronology, or astronomical dating, is a technical method of dating events or artifacts that are associated with astronomical phenomena
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Ancient Near East
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire Assyria Babylonia Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire SumerEgyptAncient EgyptPersiaAchaemenid Empire Elam MedesAnatoliaHittites Hurrians Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
states UrartuThe Levant
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Norman Lockyer
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer. Along with the French scientist Pierre Janssen
Pierre Janssen
he is credited with discovering the gas helium. Lockyer also is remembered for being the founder and first editor of the influential journal Nature.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]Contents1 Biography 2 Publications 3 Honours and awards 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Lockyer was born in Rugby, Warwickshire. After a conventional schooling supplemented by travel in Switzerland and France, he worked for some years as a civil servant in the British War office.[11] He settled in Wimbledon, South London after marrying Winifred James.[12] He was a keen amateur astronomer with a particular interest in the Sun
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Bryant Tuckerman
Louis Bryant Tuckerman, III (November 28, 1915 – May 19, 2002) was an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska. He was a member of the team that developed the Data Encryption Standard (DES).[1] He studied topology at Princeton, where he invented the Tuckerman traverse method for revealing all the faces of a flexagon.[1] Also, on March 4, 1971, he discovered the 24th Mersenne prime,[2][3] a titanic prime, with a value of 2 19937 − 1 displaystyle 2^ 19937 -1 .References[edit]^ a b c d e "Obituaries: Bryant Tuckerman". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 21 February 2013.  ^ Tuckerman, Bryant (October 1971). "The 24th Mersenne Prime". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 68 (10): 2319–2320. JSTOR 61035.  ^ Caldwell, Chris
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Owen Gingerich
Owen Jay Gingerich (/ˈɡɪŋɡərɪtʃ/; born 1930) is professor emeritus of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University and a senior astronomer emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. In addition to his research and teaching, he has written many books on the history of astronomy. Gingerich is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of the History of Science
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Quaerendo
Quaerendo is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to manuscripts and printed books in Europe, with a focus on the Low Countries. It was established in 1971 and covers codicology, palaeography, and various aspects of the history of books from around 1500 until the present. In addition to full articles, each issue contains a section dedicated to the announcement of new discoveries, publications, and recent events
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Eclipse
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. This alignment of three celestial objects is known as a syzygy.[1] Apart from syzygy, the term eclipse is also used when a spacecraft reaches a position where it can observe two celestial bodies so aligned. An eclipse is the result of either an occultation (completely hidden) or a transit (partially hidden). The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth–Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon
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Michael Witzel
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American
German-American
philologist and academic. He is the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University and the editor of the Harvard Oriental Series (volumes 50-80).Contents1 Biographical information 2 Research 3 California textbook controversy over Hindu
Hindu
history 4 Criticism 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBiographical information[edit] Witzel was born at Schwiebus, then in Germany, now Poland. He studied Indology in Germany
Germany
(from 1965 to 1971) under Paul Thieme, H.-P. Schmidt, K. Hoffmann and J. Narten as well as in Nepal (1972–1973) under the Mīmāmsaka Jununath Pandit.[1] At Kathmandu (1972–1978), he led the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project and the Nepal
Nepal
Research Centre
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Jona Lendering
Jona Lendering (born 29 October 1964 in Beneden-Leeuwen, Gelderland) is a Dutch historian and the author of books on antiquity, Dutch history and modern management. He studied masters in arts (MA) level history at Leiden University
Leiden University
and Mediterranean culture at the Amsterdam Free University,[1] taught history at the Free University, and worked as an archivist employed by the Dutch government,[2] before becoming one of the founders of the history school Livius Onderwijs.[1]Contents1 Career and works 2 Livius.org 3 Livius Onderwijs 4 Awards 5 Selected works 6 References 7 External linksCareer and works[edit] Lendering's biography of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(Alexander de Grote) attempted to make greater use than earlier scholars of Persian and Babylonian sources
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F. R. Stephenson
Professor F. Richard Stephenson (born 1941) is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Durham, in the Physics
Physics
department and the East Asian Studies department. His research concentrates on historical aspects of astronomy, in particular analyzing ancient astronomical records to reconstruct the history of Earth's rotation. He has an asteroid named after him: 10979 Fristephenson. His most famous book is Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation (Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-46194-4). Bibliography[edit]David H. Clark (fr) & F. Richard Stephenson, The Historical supernovae, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1977, 233 pages, ISBN 0080209149 F. Richard Stephenson & David H. Clark, Applications of Early Astronomical Records, Oxford University Press, 1979, 124 pages, ISBN 0-19-520122-1 Hermann Hunger, Christopher B. F. Walker, Richard Stephenson & Kevin K. C
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William Bell Dinsmoor
William Bell Dinsmoor Sr. (July 29, 1886 – July 2, 1973) was an American architectural historian of classical Greece
Greece
and a Columbia University professor of art and archaeology.[1][2]Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Bibliography 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] He was born on July 29, 1886 in Windham, New Hampshire.[2] Dinsmoor graduated from Harvard University
Harvard University
with a bachelor of science degree (1906). After working in an architectural firm, he joined the American School of Classical Studies
American School of Classical Studies
in Athens, Greece
Athens, Greece
in 1908 and became the School's architect in 1912. Dinsmoor joined the faculty of Columbia University
Columbia University
in 1919
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Obliquity Of The Ecliptic
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.[1] It differs from orbital inclination. At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Earth's obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees[2] on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth's mean obliquity is currently 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) and decreasing. Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars
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Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, 7 feet (2.1 m) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.[1] Archaeologists
Archaeologists
believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC
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Leiden Aratea
Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, VLQ 79, also called the Leiden Aratea, is an illuminated copy of an astronomical treatise by Germanicus based on the Phaenomena of Aratus. The manuscript was created in the region of Lorraine and has been dated to around 816.[1] There are 99 extant folios measuring 225 by 200 millimetres (9 by 8 in); four were lost before 1600; this apart, the manuscript is apparently complete. The work contains 39 miniatures including some of the first artistic depictions on paper of the Greek constellations. The artist has made no effort to place the stars correctly according to their positions in the sky so the images cannot be considered true star charts.[2]Contents1 History 2 Manuscript 3 Notes 4 Sources 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Leiden Aratea was created for a wealthy patron, possibly Louis the Pious or his wife Judith. Two copies were made of the manuscript in northern France around the year 1000
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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