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Astronomical Chronology
ASTRONOMICAL CHRONOLOGY, or ASTRONOMICAL DATING, is a technical method of dating events or artifacts that are associated with astronomical phenomena. Written records of historical events that include descriptions of astronomical phenomena have done much to clarify the chronology of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
; works of art which depict the configuration of the stars and planets and buildings which are oriented to the rising and setting of celestial bodies at a particular time have all been dated through astronomical calculations. Astronomical dating can be a powerful tool for establishing absolute chronologies, but... it can easily produce precise and impressive looking results based on invalid assumptions – results so precise and impressive they may not be questioned by scholars in other fields
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Jona Lendering
JONA LENDERING (born 29 October 1964 in Beneden-Leeuwen , Gelderland ) is a Dutch historian and the author of books on antiquity , Dutch history and modern management . He studied masters in arts (MA) level history at Leiden University
Leiden University
and Mediterranean culture at the Amsterdam Free University , taught history at the Free University, and worked as an archivist employed by the Dutch government, before becoming one of the founders of the history school Livius Onderwijs. CONTENTS * 1 Career and works * 2 Livius.org * 3 Livius Onderwijs * 4 Awards * 5 Selected works * 6 References * 7 External links CAREER AND WORKSLendering's biography of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(Alexander de Grote) attempted to make greater use than earlier scholars of Persian and Babylonian sources
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Michael Witzel
MICHAEL WITZEL (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American
German-American
philologist and academic. He is the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University and the editor of the Harvard Oriental Series (volumes 50-80). CONTENTS * 1 Biographical information * 2 Research * 3 California textbook controversy over Hindu history * 4 Criticism * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIONWitzel was born at Schwiebus , then in Germany
Germany
, now Poland. He studied Indology in Germany
Germany
(from 1965 to 1971) under Paul Thieme , H.-P. Schmidt, K. Hoffmann and J. Narten as well as in Nepal (1972–1973) under the Mīmāmsaka Jununath Pandit. At Kathmandu (1972–1978), he led the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project and the Nepal
Nepal
Research Centre
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F. R. Stephenson
Professor F. RICHARD STEPHENSON (born 1941) is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Durham , in the Physics
Physics
department and the East Asian Studies department. His research concentrates on historical aspects of astronomy , in particular analyzing ancient astronomical records to reconstruct the history of Earth\'s rotation . He has an asteroid named after him: 10979 Fristephenson . His most famous book is Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation (Cambridge University Press , 1997, ISBN 0-521-46194-4 ). BIBLIOGRAPHY * David H. Clark (fr) & F. Richard Stephenson, The Historical supernovae, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1977, 233 pages, ISBN 0080209149 * F. Richard Stephenson & David H. Clark, Applications of Early Astronomical Records, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 1979, 124 pages, ISBN 0-19-520122-1 * Hermann Hunger , Christopher B. F
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William Bell Dinsmoor
WILLIAM BELL DINSMOOR, SR. (July 29, 1886 – July 2, 1973) was an American architectural historian of classical Greece and a Columbia University professor of art and archaeology. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 Bibliography * 4 Further reading * 5 References BIOGRAPHYHe was born on July 29, 1886 in Windham, New Hampshire . Dinsmoor graduated from Harvard University with a bachelor of science degree (1906). After working in an architectural firm, he joined the American School of Classical Studies in Athens , Greece in 1908 and became the School's architect in 1912. Dinsmoor joined the faculty of Columbia University in 1919. In 1927-1928 he was the architectural consultant for the construction of the interior of a full-scale concrete replica of the Parthenon in Nashville , Tennessee . He then returned to the American School as a professor of architecture (1924–1928). He was married to Zillah Frances Pierce (1886–1960)
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Stonehenge
STONEHENGE is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire
Wiltshire
, England, 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury and 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury
Salisbury
. It consists of a ring of standing stones , with each standing stone around 13 ft (4.1 metres) high, 6 ft 11 in (2.1 metres) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds . Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC
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Obliquity Of The Ecliptic
In astronomy , AXIAL TILT, also known as OBLIQUITY, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane . It differs from orbital inclination . At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars . This causes one pole to be directed more toward the Sun on one side of the orbit , and the other pole on the other side — the cause of the seasons on the Earth . Earth's obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth's mean obliquity is currently 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.43699°) and decreasing
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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Ancient Near East
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia * Akkadian Empire * Assyria * Babylonia * Neo-Assyrian Empire *
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Time
TIME (styled TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City
New York City
. It was founded in 1923 and originally run by Henry Luce . A European edition ( Time
Time
Europe, formerly known as Time
Time
Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition ( Time
Time
Asia) is based in Hong Kong . The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time
Time
has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012
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Far Future In Science Fiction And Popular Culture
The far future , here defined as the time beyond the 10th millennium , has been used as a setting in many works of fiction or popular scientific speculation. CONTENTS * 1 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
* 2 Dune * 3 Foundation series * 4 The Future is Wild * 5 Last and First Men and Star Maker
Star Maker
* 5.1 Last and First Men * 5.2 Star Maker
Star Maker
* 6 "The Last Question" * 7 "The Late Philip J
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Bryant Tuckerman
LOUIS BRYANT TUCKERMAN, III (November 28, 1915 – May 19, 2002) was an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska . He was a member of the team that developed the Data Encryption Standard (DES). He studied topology at Princeton , where he invented the Tuckerman traverse method for revealing all the faces of a flexagon . Also, on March 4, 1971, he discovered the 24th Mersenne prime , a titanic prime , with a value of 2 19937 1 {displaystyle 2^{19937}-1} . REFERENCES * ^ A B C D E "Obituaries: Bryant Tuckerman". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics . Retrieved 21 February 2013. * ^ Tuckerman, Bryant (October 1971). "The 24th Mersenne Prime". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 68 (10): 2319–2320. JSTOR 61035 . * ^ Caldwell, Chris. "Mersenne Primes: History, Theorems and Lists"
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Owen Gingerich
OWEN JAY GINGERICH (/ˈɡɪŋɡərɪtʃ/ ; born 1930) is professor emeritus of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University and a senior astronomer emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory . In addition to his research and teaching, he has written many books on the history of astronomy . Gingerich is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , the American Philosophical Society , and the International Academy of the History of Science . A committed Christian , he has been active in the American Scientific Affiliation , a society of evangelical scientists. He has served on the board of trustees of the Templeton Foundation
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Quaerendo
QUAERENDO is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to manuscripts and printed books in Europe, with a focus on the Low Countries . It was established in 1971 and covers codicology , palaeography , and various aspects of the history of books from around 1500 until the present. In addition to full articles, each issue contains a section dedicated to the announcement of new discoveries, publications, and recent events
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Norman Lockyer
SIR JOSEPH NORMAN LOCKYER, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as NORMAN LOCKYER, was an English scientist and astronomer. Along with the French scientist Pierre Janssen he is credited with discovering the gas helium . Lockyer also is remembered for being the founder and first editor of the influential journal Nature . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Publications * 3 Honours and awards * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYLockyer was born in Rugby, Warwickshire
Rugby, Warwickshire
. After a conventional schooling supplemented by travel in Switzerland and France, he worked for some years as a civil servant in the British War office
War office
. He settled in Wimbledon , South London after marrying Winifred James
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Leiden Aratea
LEIDEN, UNIVERSITEITSBIBLIOTHEEK, VLQ 79, also called the LEIDEN ARATEA, is an illuminated copy of an astronomical treatise by Germanicus
Germanicus
based on the Phaenomena of Aratus
Aratus
. The manuscript was created in the region of Lorraine and has been dated to around 816. There are 99 extant folios measuring 225 by 200 millimetres (9 by 8 in); four were lost before 1600; this apart, the manuscript is apparently complete. The work contains 39 miniatures including some of the first artistic depictions on paper of the Greek constellations. The artist has made no effort to place the stars correctly according to their positions in the sky so the images cannot be considered true star charts
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