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Astronomical Diaries
The Babylonian astronomical diaries
Babylonian astronomical diaries
are a collection of Babylonian cuneiform texts which contain systematic records of astronomical observations and political events, as well as predictions based on astronomical observations. They also include other information, such as commodity prices for particular dates and weather reports.[1][2] Currently they are stored in the British Museum. It is suggested that the Diaries were used as sources for the Babylonian Chronicles.Contents1 History 2 Translation 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Babylonians were the first to recognize that astronomical phenomena are periodic and apply mathematics to their predictions. The oldest known significant astronomical text is Tablet 63 of the Enûma Anu Enlil collection, the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which lists the first and last visible risings of Venus over a period of about 21 years
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran
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American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
(APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years. Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, and regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences
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Otto Neugebauer
Otto Eduard Neugebauer (May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) was an Austrian American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages. By studying clay tablets, he discovered that the ancient Babylonians knew much more about mathematics and astronomy than had been previously realized. The National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
has called Neugebauer "the most original and productive scholar of the history of the exact sciences, perhaps of the history of science, of our age."Contents1 Career 2 Prizes and honors 3 Select publications3.1 Articles 3.2 Books4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Neugebauer began as a mathematician, then turned to Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, and then took up the history of mathematical astronomy
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Abraham Sachs
Abraham Sachs (1915 – April 22, 1983) was an American assyriologist. He earned his PhD in Assyriology
Assyriology
in 1939 at Johns Hopkins University.[1] Of note is his collaboration with Otto Neugebauer, whom he met in 1941 when the latter visited the Oriental Institute in Chicago; Neugebauer and Sachs joined on the publication of Babylonian astronomical texts. In 1948 Sachs was offered (and declined) the Chair in Assyriology
Assyriology
at Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
in succession to William Albright. In 1949 he worked at the Pontificio Instituto Biblico. In 1952 received a Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
travel grant to study Babylonian astronomical diaries in the British Museum, where he had access to the text stocked by the pioneer British assyriologist Theophilus Pinches between 1895 and 1900
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Nabonassar
Nabû-nāṣir, inscribed in cuneiform as dAG-PAB or dAG-ŠEŠ-ir, Greek: Ναβονάσσαρος, whence "Nabonassar", and meaning "Nabû (is) protector",[1]:226 was the king of Babylon
Babylon
747–734 BC. He deposed a foreign Chaldean usurper named Nabu-shuma-ishkun, bringing native rule back to Babylon
Babylon
after 23 years of Chaldean rule. His reign saw the beginning of a new era characterized by the systematic maintenance of chronologically precise historical records. Both the Babylonian Chronicle[i 1] and the Ptolemaic Canon begin with his accession to the throne
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Venus Tablet Of Ammisaduqa
The Venus
Venus
tablet of Ammisaduqa ( Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63) refers to the record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets dating from the first millennium BC. It is believed that this astronomical record was first compiled during the reign of King Ammisaduqa (or Ammizaduga), the fourth ruler after Hammurabi
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Enûma Anu Enlil
Enuma Anu Enlil (𒌓𒀭𒈾𒀭𒂗𒆤𒇲 U4 AN.na dEN.LÍL.lá,[1] lit. When the gods Anu and Enlil [...]), abbreviated EAE, is a major series of 68 or 70 tablets (depending on the recension) dealing with Babylonian astrology. The bulk of the work is a substantial collection of omens, estimated to number between 6500 and 7000, which interpret a wide variety of celestial and atmospheric phenomena in terms relevant to the king and state.[2]:78Contents1 Overview 2 Contents 3 Publication of the series 4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] Enuma Anu Enlil is the principal source of omens used in the regular astrological reports that were sent to the Neo-Assyrian king by his entourage of scholars
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British Museum
5,906,716 (2017)[2]Ranked 1st nationallyChairman Sir Richard LambertDirector Hartwig FischerPublic transit access Goodge Street; Holborn; Tottenham Court Road; Russell Square;Website britishmuseum.orgArea 807,000 sq ft (75,000 m2) in 94 GalleriesThe centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room.The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture
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Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script,[a] one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.[3] It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".[4][5] Emerging in Sumer
Sumer
in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk
Uruk
IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a language isolate , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform)
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Saros Cycle
The Saros (/ˈsɛərɒs/ ( listen)) is a period of approximately 223 synodic months (approximately 6585.3211 days, or 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours), that can be used to predict eclipses of the Sun
Sun
and Moon. One saros period after an eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and Moon
Moon
return to approximately the same relative geometry, a near straight line, and a nearly identical eclipse will occur, in what is referred to as an eclipse cycle
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