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Asterids
In the APG IV system
APG IV system
(2016) for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group).[1] Common examples include the forget-me-nots, nightshades (including potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, peppers and tobacco), the common sunflower, petunias, morning glory and sweet potato, coffee, lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, honeysuckle, ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary. Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Monophyletic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Chili Pepper
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli[1]) from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
chīlli Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃiːli] ( listen)) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2] They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes
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Coffee
Coffee
Coffee
is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea
Coffea
plant. The genus Coffea
Coffea
is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion
Réunion
in the Indian Ocean.[2] The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world. Coffee
Coffee
plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are arabica and robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor
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APG IV System
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Concepts3.1 Subsystem4 Analysis4.1 Cultural system 4.2 Economic system5 Application of the system concept5.1 In information and computer science 5.2 In engineering and physics 5.3 In social and cognitive sciences and management research 5.4 Pure logical systems 5.5 Applied to strategic thinking6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "system" comes from the Latin
Latin
word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2] History[edit] According to Marshall McLuhan,"System" means "something to look at"
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Morning Glory
Morning glory
Morning glory
(also written as morning-glory[1]) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux. Morning glory
Morning glory
species belong to many genera, some of which are:Argyreia Astripomoea Calystegia Convolvulus Ipomoea Lepistemon Merremia Operculina Rivea StictocardiaContents1 Habit 2 Cultivation 3 History 4 Culinary uses 5 Ethnobotany 6 Gallery 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHabit[edit] Most morning glory flowers unravel into full bloom in the early morning. The flowers usually start to fade a few hours before the "petals" start showing visible curling. They prefer full solar exposure throughout the day, and mesic soils
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Impatiens Capensis
Impatiens biflora Walter Impatiens fulva Nutt.Impatiens capensis, the orange jewelweed, common jewelweed, spotted jewelweed, spotted touch-me-not,[1] or orange balsam,[2] is an annual plant native to North America. It is common in bottomland soils, ditches, and along creeks, often growing side-by-side with its less common relative, yellow jewelweed (I. pallida).Flowers and leavesJewelweed plants grow 3 to 5 feet tall and bloom from late spring to early fall
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Nicotiana Tabacum
Nicotiana
Nicotiana
tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant. It is found only in cultivation, where it is the most commonly grown of all plants in the Nicotiana
Nicotiana
genus, and its leaves are commercially grown in many countries to be processed into tobacco. It grows to heights between 1 and 2 meters
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Forget-me-not
Myosotis
Myosotis
(/ˌmaɪ.əˈsoʊtɪs/;[2] from the Greek: μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", after the leaf) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. In the northern hemisphere they are commonly called forget-me-nots[3] or scorpion grasses. The common name "forget-me-not" was calqued from the German Vergissmeinnicht, and first used in English in 1398 AD via King Henry IV.[4] Similar names and variations are found in many languages. Myosotis alpestris
Myosotis alpestris
is the state flower of Alaska[5] and Dalsland
Dalsland
Sweden
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Solanaceae
Cestroideae Goetzeoideae Nicotianoideae Petunioideae Schizanthoideae Schwenckioideae Solanoideae[1]Fruits including tomatoes, tomatillos, eggplant, bell peppers and chili peppers, all of which are closely related members of the Solanaceae.The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees, and includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, and some are highly toxic, but many, including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, bell/chili peppers, and tobacco are widely used
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Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum
Solanum
tuberosum. Potato
Potato
may be applied to both the plant and the edible tuber.[2] Potatoes have become a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Potatoes are the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize (corn), wheat, and rice.[3] The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish
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Eggplant
Solanum
Solanum
ovigerum Dunal Solanum
Solanum
trongum Poir. and see text Eggplant
Eggplant
( Solanum
Solanum
melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. Eggplant
Eggplant
is the common name in North America, Australia and New Zealand; in British English, it is aubergine,[1] and in South Asia
South Asia
and South Africa, brinjal.[2] The fruit is widely used in cooking. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and the potato. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species, the thorn or bitter apple, S
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Tomatoes
Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.[1]The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, vegetable of the plant Solanum lycopersicum,[2] commonly known as a tomato plant. The plant belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[1] The species originated in western South America.[2][3] The Nahuatl (Aztec language) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word "tomate", from which the English word tomato derived.[3][4] Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of México.[2][5] The Spanish discovered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec peoples during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, then brought it to Europe, and, from there, to other parts of the European colonized world during the 16th century.[2] Tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks
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