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Asterids
In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants , the name ASTERIDS denotes a clade (a monophyletic group). Common examples include the forget-me-nots , nightshades (including potatoes , eggplants , tomatoes , peppers and tobacco ), the common sunflower , petunias , morning glory and sweet potato , coffee , lavender , lilac , olive , jasmine , honeysuckle , ash tree , teak , snapdragon , sesame , psyllium , garden sage , and table herbs such as mint , basil , and rosemary . Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system (1981) and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems. The name asterids (not necessarily capitalised) resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Morning Glory
MORNING GLORY (also written as MORNING-GLORY ) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae , whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux. Morning glory species belong to many genera , some of which are: * Calystegia * Convolvulus * Ipomoea
Ipomoea
* Merremia * Rivea * Astripomoea * Operculina * Stictocardia * Argyreia * Lepistemon CONTENTS * 1 Habit * 2 Cultivation * 3 History * 4 Culinary uses * 5 Ethnobotany * 6 Gallery * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HABITMost morning glory flowers unravel into full bloom in the early morning. The flowers usually start to fade a few hours before the "petals" start showing visible curling. They prefer full solar exposure throughout the day, and mesic soils
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Coffee
COFFEE is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans , which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan
Sudan
) and Madagascar
Madagascar
, the Comoros
Comoros
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, and Réunion
Réunion
in the Indian Ocean. The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world and coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries , primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas
Americas
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, India
India
, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica , and the less sophisticated but stronger and more hardy robusta . Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried
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Chili Pepper
The CHILI PEPPER (also CHILE PEPPER CHILLI PEPPER, or simply CHILLI, from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
chīlli Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: ( listen )) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum
Capsicum
, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae . They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids . Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange , many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine . Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China
China
is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total
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Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Psyllium
PSYLLIUM /ˈsɪliəm/ , or ISPAGHULA /ˌɪspəˈɡuːlə/ , is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage . Psyllium
Psyllium
is mainly used as a dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea and occasionally as a food thickener. Research has also shown benefits in reducing blood cholesterol levels. The plant from which the seeds are extracted tolerates dry and cool climates and is mainly cultivated in northern India. Psyllium
Psyllium
products are marketed under several brand names, such as Metamucil, Fybogel, Konsyl, and Lunelax
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Nicotiana Tabacum
NICOTIANA TABACUM, or cultivated tobacco , is an annually-grown herbaceous plant. It is found only in cultivation , where it is the most commonly grown of all plants in the Nicotiana
Nicotiana
genus, and its leaves are commercially grown in many countries to be processed into tobacco. It grows to heights between 1 and 2 meters. Research is ongoing into its ancestry among wild Nicotiana
Nicotiana
species, but it is believed to be a hybrid of Nicotiana
Nicotiana
sylvestris , Nicotiana tomentosiformis , and possibly Nicotiana
Nicotiana
otophora
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Petunias
See text. PETUNIA is genus of 35 species of flowering plants of South American origin, closely related to tobacco , cape gooseberries , tomatoes , deadly nightshades , potatoes and chili peppers in the same family, Solanaceae . The popular flower of the same name derived its epithet from the French, which took the word petun, meaning "tobacco," from a Tupi–Guarani language . An annual , most of the varieties seen in gardens are hybrids (P. × atkinsiana , also known as P. × hybrida). CONTENTS * 1 In folk tales * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Ecology * 4 Cultivation * 5 Orange petunias * 6 Uses * 7 Species
Species
* 8 Gallery * 9 References * 10 External links IN FOLK TALESThe Mayan and Incas believed that petunias have the power to chase away with their odor the underworld monsters and spirits. Their flower-beds were bunched together for magical drinks
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Common Sunflower
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, the COMMON SUNFLOWER, is a large annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for its edible oil and edible fruits (sunflower seeds ). This sunflower species is also used as bird food, as livestock forage (as a meal or a silage plant), and in some industrial applications. The plant was first domesticated in the Americas
Americas
. Wild Helianthus annuus is a widely branched annual plant with many flower heads. The domestic sunflower, however, often possesses only a single large inflorescence (flower head) atop an unbranched stem. The name sunflower may derive from the flower's head's shape, which resembles the sun, or from the impression that the blooming plant appears to slowly turn its flower towards the sun as the latter moves across the sky on a daily basis
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Solanaceae
Cestroideae Goetzeoideae Nicotianoideae Petunioideae Schizanthoideae Schwenckioideae Solanoideae Fruits including tomatoes, tomatillos, eggplant, bell peppers and chili peppers. The SOLANACEAE, or NIGHTSHADES, are an economically important family of flowering plants . The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees, and includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids , and some are highly toxic , but many, including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, bell/chili peppers, and tobacco are widely used. The family belongs to the order Solanales , in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(dicotyledons )
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Forget-me-not
MYOSOTIS (/ˌmaɪ.əˈsoʊtɪs/ ; from the Greek : μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", after the leaf) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
. In the northern hemisphere they are commonly called FORGET-ME-NOTS or SCORPION GRASSES. The common name "forget-me-not" was calqued from the German Vergissmeinnicht, and first used in English in 1398 AD via King Henry IV . Similar names and variations are found in many languages. Myosotis alpestris is the state flower of Alaska
Alaska
. and Dalsland
Dalsland
Sweden
Sweden
. Plants of this genus are commonly confused with Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
forget-me-nots which belong to a related genus, Myosotidium
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Potato
The POTATO is a starchy , tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade SOLANUM TUBEROSUM. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber. In the Andes
Andes
, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Potato
Potato
has become a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply . It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize , wheat , and rice . The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas from the United States
United States
to southern Chile
Chile

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Eggplant
Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. and see text EGGPLANT ( Solanum melongena), or AUBERGINE, is a species of nightshade , grown for its edible fruit. Eggplant
Eggplant
is the common name in North America, Australia and New Zealand, but British English
British English
uses the French word aubergine. It is known in South Asia
South Asia
and South Africa as brinjal. The fruit is widely used in cooking. As a member of the genus Solanum , it is related to the tomato and the potato . It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species, the thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum , probably with two independent domestications, one in South Asia
South Asia
and one in East Asia
East Asia

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