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Assarhaddon Berlin 012008
Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother"; Hebrew: אֵסַר חַדֹּן‬, Modern ’ēsár ḥadón, Tiberian ’esār ḥādon;[1] Ancient Greek: Ασαρχαδδων;[2] Latin: Asor Haddan[2]) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
who reigned 681 – 669 BC. He was the youngest son of Sennacherib
Sennacherib
and the West Semitic queen Naqi'a
Naqi'a
(Zakitu), Sennacherib's second wife.Contents1 Rise to power 2 Military campaigns 3 Death 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksRise to power[edit]Victory stele.When, despite being the youngest son, Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
was named successor by his father, his elder brothers tried to discredit him
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List Of Assyrian Kings
The list of Assyrian kings are compiled from the Assyrian King List, which begins approximately 2500 BC and continues to the 8th century BC. It begins listing Kings of the Sumero- Akkadian
Akkadian
city-state of Assur, and later kings of the Assyrian Empires. Assyria
Assyria
is an ancient civilization in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey). The Assyrian King List includes regnal lengths that appear to have been based on now lost limmu lists (which list the names of eponymous officials for each year)
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Tabal
Tabal
Tabal
(c.f. biblical Tubal) was a Luwian
Luwian
speaking Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
kingdom of South Central Anatolia. According to archaeologist Kurt Bittel, the kingdom of Tabal
Tabal
first appeared after the collapse of the Hittite Empire.[1] The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III records that he received gifts from their 24 kings in 837 BC and the following year. A century later, their king Burutash is mentioned in an inscription of king Tiglath-Pileser III. The kings of Tabal
Tabal
have left a number of inscriptions from the 9th-8th centuries BC in hieroglyphic- Luwian
Luwian
in the Turkish villages of Çalapverdi and Alişar. Tabal
Tabal
and its people are often identified with the tribe of the Tibareni
Tibareni
(Tibarenoi in Greek, Thobeles in Josephus) who lived near the Black Sea
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Esagila
Coordinates: 32°32′2″N 44°25′17″E / 32.53389°N 44.42139°E / 32.53389; 44.42139Ancient Near East portalBabylonian clay brick from sixth century BC cuneiform inscription "Nebuchadnezzar support Esagila
Esagila
temple and temple Ezida (Borsippa). Eldest son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. Hecht Museum
Hecht Museum
HaifaThe Ésagila (Sumerian: 𒂍𒊕𒅍𒆷 É-SAǦ-ÍL.LA, "temple whose top is lofty")[1] was a temple dedicated to Marduk, the protector god of Babylon
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Ekur
Ekur
Ekur
(𒂍𒆳 É.KUR) is a Sumerian term meaning "mountain house". It is the assembly of the gods in the Garden of the gods, parallel in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
to Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
and was the most revered and sacred building of ancient Sumer.[1][2]Contents1 Origin and meaning 2 The Ekur
Ekur
complex 3 The Ekur
Ekur
Archive 4 Cosmology 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrigin and meaning[edit] There is a clear association of Ziggurats with mountain houses. Mountain houses play a certain role in Mesopotamian mythology
Mesopotamian mythology
and Assyro-Babylonian religion, associated with deities such as Anu, Enlil, Enki
Enki
and Ninhursag
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Nippur
Nippur
Nippur
(Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as 𒂗𒆤𒆠, EN.LÍLKI, " Enlil
Enlil
City;"[1] Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.[citation needed] It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the "Lord Wind," ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone. Nippur
Nippur
was located in modern Nuffar in Afak, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.Contents1 History1.1 Pre-Sargonic era 1.2 Akkadian, Ur III, and Old Babylonian periods 1.3 Later history2 Archaeology 3 Drehem 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Nippur
Nippur
never enjoyed political hegemony in its own right, but its control was crucial, as it was considered capable of conferring the overall "kingship" on monarchs from other city-states
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Tower Of Babel
The Tower
Tower
of Babel (Hebrew: מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל‬‎, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages.[1][2][3][4] According to the story, a united humanity in the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating eastward, comes to the land of Shinar
Shinar
(שִׁנְעָר‬). There they agree to build a city and a tower tall enough to reach heaven
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Assur
Aššur (Akkadian; Syriac: ܐܫܘܪ‎ 'Āšūr; Persian: آشور‎: Āšūr; Hebrew: אַשּׁוּר‬: Aššûr, Arabic: اشور‎: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
of 911–608 BC. The remains of the city lie on the western bank of the Tigris River, north of the confluence with the tributary Little Zab
Little Zab
River, in modern-day Iraq, more precisely in the Al-Shirqat District
Al-Shirqat District
of the Saladin Governorate. Occupation of the city itself continued for approximately 4000 years, from the mid-3rd millennium BC (c
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Gambulu
The Gambulu, Gambulai,[1] or Gambuli[2] were a tribe of Arameans
Arameans
in ancient Babylonia.[3] They were the most powerful tribe along the eastern border of Babylonia,[4] or in the south toward the border with Elam.[5] It is difficult to pinpoint their exact location.[6] H. W. F. Saggs places them "south of the Diyala river
Diyala river
toward the Elamite border."[3] When Assyrian king Sargon II
Sargon II
(722-705) waged war against them in the city of Dur-Athara, 18,430 were deported.[7] The Gambulu, along with the Puqudu, continued to be politically important as far as the sixth century.[8] References[edit]^ Claude Hermann Walter Johns (1904). Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters. C. Scribner's sons. p. 361.  ^ George Smith (1876). Ancient History from the Monuments: Assyria: From the Earliest Times to the Fall of Nineveh. Scribner, Armstrong. p. 167.  ^ a b H. W. F
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Cimmerians
The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
(also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC [2] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. Probably originating in the Pontic steppe and invading by means of the Caucasus, they are likely to be those who in c. 714 BC assaulted Urartu, a state in north eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
subject to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. They were defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II
Sargon II
in 705 and turned towards Anatolia, conquering Phrygia
Phrygia
in 696/5. They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia; however an invasion of Assyrian controlled Anshan (Persia)
Anshan (Persia)
was thwarted. Soon after 619, Alyattes of Lydia
Lydia
defeated them
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Sargon II
Sargon II
Sargon II
(Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾); Aramaic סרגן;[1] reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king
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Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia
Cilicia
(/sɪˈlɪʃiə/)[2][note 1] was the south coastal region of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
during the late Byzantine Empire
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Teushpa
Teushpa was an early 7th-century BC king of the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
but is also mentioned as king of the Umman-Manda according to King Esarhaddon's inscriptions. In 679 BC, he commanded the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
in battle against the Assyrians under Esarhaddon, but lost the battle.[1] His name recalls that of his contemporary Teispes (Chishpish) of the Achaemenids, though they do not seem to be etymlogically related.[2] References[edit]^ Rea, The Assyrian Exile: Israel's Legacy in Captivity, p
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Civil War
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology,[1] is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[2] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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Hilakku
Hilakku
Hilakku
was one of the Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
states during the Iron Age
Iron Age
in southern Anatolia
Anatolia
during the 1st millennium BC.[1] Hilakku
Hilakku
was north of the Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
state of Tabal, west of Que, and north of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sea. It covered the land of Cilicia Tracheia, (Latin Aspera) of the Classical age,[2] otherwise known as 'Rough Cilicia'
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