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Askar Akayev
ASKAR AKAYEVICH AKAYEV (Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bayrak , Kemin District ) was President of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution . CONTENTS * 1 Education and early career * 2 Political career * 3 Protests * 4 2005 election controversy * 5 Downfall * 6 Current position and activities * 7 Honours * 7.1 Foreign honours * 8 Publications * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links EDUCATION AND EARLY CAREERAkayev was born in Kyzyl-Bayrak , Kirghiz SSR
Kirghiz SSR
, on 10 November 1944. He was the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers. He became a metalworker at a local factory in 1961
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Privatization
PRIVATIZATION, also spelt PRIVATISATION (in British English), has several meanings. Primarily, it is the process of transferring OWNERSHIP of a business , enterprise, agency, public service, or public property from the public sector (a government) to the private sector , either to a business that operates for profit or to a nonprofit organization . It may also mean the government outsourcing of services or functions to private firms, for example, revenue collection, law enforcement , and prison management . PRIVATIZATION may also describe ownership changes not involving the public/government sector. The first is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors. The shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity . The second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization or cooperative in order to form a joint-stock company
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Jalal-Abad
JALAL-ABAD (also spelled DZHALAL-ABAD, DJALAL-ABAT, JALALABAT; Kyrgyz : Жалал-Aбат, Calal-Abat/Jalal-Abat, جالال-ابات, ) is the administrative and economic centre of Jalal-Abad Region
Jalal-Abad Region
in southwestern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. Its area is 88 square kilometres (34 sq mi), and its resident population was 97,172 in 2009. It is situated at the north-eastern end of the Fergana valley
Fergana valley
along the Kögart River valley, in the foothills of the Babash Ata mountains, very close to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
border. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Economy * 4 Tourism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEW Jalal-Abad
Jalal-Abad
is known for its mineral springs in its surroundings, and the water from the nearby Azreti-Ayup-Paygambar spa was long believed to cure lepers
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Bishkek
BISHKEK (Kyrgyz : Бишкéк; IPA: ; Russian : Бишке́к; IPA: ), formerly PISHPEK and FRUNZE, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek
Bishkek
is also the administrative center of the Chuy Region . The province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. Post-Soviet research suggests the name derives from a Kyrgyz word for a churn used to make fermented mare's milk (kumis ), the Kyrgyz national drink - although not all sources agree on this. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Zimmermann
Zimmermann
destroyed the fortress
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Family Dictatorship
A HEREDITARY DICTATORSHIP, or FAMILY DICTATORSHIP, in political science terms a PERSONALISTIC REGIME, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy , in that political power passes within the dictator's family. Thus, although the key leader is often called president or prime minister rather than a king or emperor , power is transmitted between members of the same family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader. A family dictatorship is different from a monarchy (where the descent is required by general constitutional law), or other political families (where members of the family possess informal, rather than formal and overwhelming political authority)
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Adam Smith
ADAM SMITH FRSA (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS ) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher, and author. He was a moral philosopher , a pioneer of political economy , and was a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
era. He is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics . Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
and at Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College, Oxford
, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot, John Snell
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England
London, England
, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto . His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history
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Saint Petersburg
SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, with five million inhabitants in 2012. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the Neva River , at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian : Петрогра́д, IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian : Ленингра́д, IPA: ), and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg. Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia
Russia

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Frunze Polytechnic Institute
The KYRGYZ STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (Kyrgyz : Кыргыз мамлекеттик техникалык университети/Kyrgyz mamlekettik tekhnikalyk universiteti; Russian : Кыргызский государственный технический университет/Kyrgyzskiy gosudarstvenyy tekhnicheskiy universitet) named after Iskhak Razzakov is a university in Bishkek , Kyrgyzstan . Formerly the university was known as the FRUNZE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE (Russian : Фрунзенский политехнический институт/Frunzenskiy polytekhnicheskiy institut). It was founded in 1954
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Mikhail Gorbachev
MIKHAIL SERGEYEVICH GORBACHEV, GCL (/ˈɡɔːrbəˌtʃɒf/ ; Russian : Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв; IPA: ( listen ); born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1985 until 1991. He was the country's head of state from 1988 until 1991 (titled as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and as President of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1990 to 1991). Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai in 1931 into a peasant Ukrainian –Russian family, and in his teens, operated combine harvesters on collective farms
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Term Limit
A TERM LIMIT is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office . When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life ". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship . Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms an officeholder can serve, while, in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient * 1.2 Modern * 2 Types * 3 Notable examples * 3.1 Relaxed term limits * 3.2 Tightened term limits * 3.3 People who would have run afoul of modern term limits * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYANCIENTTerm limits have a long history
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Osh
OSH (Kyrgyz : Ош, Russian : Ош, Uzbek : O'sh) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, located in the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". It is the oldest city in the country (estimated to be more than 3000 years old), and has served as the administrative center of Osh Region
Osh Region
since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 255,800 in 2012, comprising Kyrgyz , Uzbeks
Uzbeks
, Russians
Russians
, Tajiks , and other smaller ethnic groups
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic Slovenská republika (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bratislava 48°09′N 17°07′E / 48.150°N 17
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Order Of The White Double Cross
DOUBLE may refer to: * Look-alike , a person who closely resembles another person * Body double , someone who substitutes for the credited actor of a character * Doppelgänger , ghostly double of a living person * Polish Enigma doubles , replicating the function of Nazi Germany's cipher machines * Double, a bet which combines two selections; see Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers#Double * Double, a former fraction of the Guernsey pound * Double, a former rank of a liturgical feast in the Roman Rite * Double-flowered form of plantsCONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Mathematics and computing * 3 Food and drink * 4 Sports * 5 Film and television * 6 Games * 7 Music * 8 Literature * 9 Places * 10 See also PEOPLE * Baron Emile Double (1869–1938), vigneron who established the vineyard at the Château de Beaupré in Saint-Cannat in 1890 * François-Joseph Double (1776–1842), French physician * Marie-Louise Double de Sain
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Editorial URSS
EDITORIAL URSS is a Russian scientific literature publishing house (textbooks , monographs , journals , proceedings of Russian institutes and universities, etc.). Since 1995, Editorial URSS has issued more than 4000 items in Russian, Spanish, and English. About 200 books have been issued by Editorial URSS in collaboration with Russian Foundation for Basic Research , Russian Foundation of Humanities and Soros Foundation "Open Society". The wide variety of books on science and nature (physics , mathematics , chemistry ), biology , ecology , medicine , synergetics , social sciences (economics , politics , history , psychology , sociology , philology , languages , etc.) are aimed to the general public. SEE ALSO * Mir Publishing House SELECT PUBLICATIONS * Bondarenko D.M. . (2006). Homoarchy : A Principle of Culture’s Organization. The 13th – 19th Centuries Benin Kingdom as a Non-State Supercomplex Society
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Moscow State University
LOMONOSOV MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY (MSU; Russian : Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
. It was founded on January 25, 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov . MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was then known as Lomonosov University. It also houses the tallest educational building in the world. It is rated among the universities with the best reputation in the world . Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy
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