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Askar Akayev
Askar Akayevich Akayev (Kyrgyz: Аскар Акаевич Акаев, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev) (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bayrak, Kemin District) was President of Kyrgyzstan
President of Kyrgyzstan
from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution.Contents1 Education and early career 2 Political career 3 Protests 4 2005 election controversy 5 Downfall 6 Current position and activities 7 Honours7.1 Foreign honours8 Publications 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksEducation and early career[edit] Akayev was born in Kyzyl-Bayrak, Kirghiz SSR, on 10 November 1944.[1] He was the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers. He became a metalworker at a local factory in 1961. He subsequently moved to Leningrad, where he trained as a physicist and graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics in 1967 with an honors degree in mathematics, engineering and computer science
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Vladimir Putin
President of Russia IncumbentEarly life Pets Political careerPolitical viewsDomestic policylegislation and programs military reformForeign policy Putin's PlanElectionsElectoral history 2000 2004 2012 2018 (campaign)PremiershipFirst Cabinet Second CabinetPresidencyInaugurations1st 2nd 3rd 4thInternational trips Political groups Public image SpeechesMunich 2007 Crimea
Crimea
2014 Valdai 2014Media galleryv t eVladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈpuːtɪn/; Russ
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Privatization
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors. In the case of a for-profit company, the shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity; in the case the partial or full sale of a state-owned enterprise to private owners shares may be traded in the public market for the first time, or for the first time since an enterprise's previous nationalization
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Frunze Polytechnic Institute
The Kyrgyz State Technical University (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз мамлекеттик техникалык университети/Kyrgyz mamlekettik tekhnikalyk universiteti; Russian: Кыргызский государственный технический университет/Kyrgyzskiy gosudarstvenyy tekhnicheskiy universitet) named after Iskhak Razzakov is a university in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Formerly the university was known as the Frunze Polytechnic Institute (Russian: Фрунзенский политехнический институт/Frunzenskiy polytekhnicheskiy institut)
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Supreme Soviet Of The USSR
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (Russian: Верхо́вный Сове́т Сове́тского Сою́за, tr. Verkhóvny Sovét Sovétskogo Soyúza, IPA: [vʲɪrˈxovnɨj sɐˈvʲet sɐvʲˈetskəvə sɐˈjuzə]) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union[1] and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments
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Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
(/ˈmɒskoʊ, -kaʊ/; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[11] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[12] Moscow
Moscow
is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (US: /ˈɡɔːrbəˌtʃɑːv/,[1] UK: /ˈɡɔːbəˌtʃɒf/; Russian: Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв, IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil sʲɪrˈɡʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡərbɐˈtɕɵf] ( listen); born 2 March 1931)[2] is a Russian and former Soviet politician. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
from 1985 until 1991
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Karl Marx
Karl Marx[6] (/mɑːrks/;[7] German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier
Trier
to a middle-class family, Marx studied law and Hegelian philosophy. Due to his political publications Marx became stateless and lived in exile in London, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and publish his writings. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist
Communist
Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital
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Adam Smith
Adam Smith
Adam Smith
FRSA (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
era.[1] Smith is best known for two classic works: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). The former, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics.[2] Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot, John Snell
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Jalal-Abad
Jalal-Abad
Jalal-Abad
(also spelled Dzhalal-Abad, Djalal-Abat, Jalalabat; Kyrgyz: Жалал-Aбат, Calal-Abat/Jalal-Abat, جالال-ابات, [dʒɑlɑlɑbɑt]) is the administrative and economic centre of Jalal-Abad Region
Jalal-Abad Region
in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 88 square kilometres (34 sq mi), and its resident population was 97,172 in 2009.[1] It is situated at the north-eastern end of the Fergana valley
Fergana valley
along the Kögart River valley, in the foothills of the Babash Ata mountains, very close to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
border.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Climate 4 Economy 5 Tourism 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOverview[edit] Jalal-Abad
Jalal-Abad
is known for its mineral springs in its surroundings, and the water from the nearby Azreti-Ayup-Paygambar spa was long believed to cure lepers
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Kemin District
Kemin is the northeast panhandle raion (district) of Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 3,533 square kilometres (1,364 sq mi), making it the largest district of Chuy Region, and its resident population was 44,118 in 2009.[1] Its administrative headquarters is at Kemin.[2] The district is located in the Chong-Kemin Valley, the Kichi-Kemin Valley and the eastern part of the Chuy Valley. It borders with Kazakhstan in the north, Chuy District in the west, and Issyk-Kul Province in the south and east.Contents1 Topography 2 Climate 3 Hydrology 4 Demographics4.1 Ethnic composition 4.2 Towns, rural communities, and villages5 ReferencesTopography[edit] The western part of the district is flat with altitudes 1000 - 1600 msl, and the eastern part is mountainous. Climate[edit] The climate is sharply continental with cold winters and cool summers; January temperatures averaging -5 °C - -10 °C, July +17 °C - +18 °C
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Bishkek
Bishkek
Bishkek
(Kyrgyz: Бишке́к, Bişkek, بىشکەک; IPA: [biʃˈkek]; Russian: Бишке́к, tr. Biškék, IPA: [bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk]), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek
Bishkek
is also the administrative center of the Chuy Region. The province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand
Khokand
authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek"
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Family Dictatorship
A hereditary dictatorship, or family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy or despotate, in that political power passes within the dictator's family. Thus, although the key leader is often called president or prime minister rather than a king or emperor, power is transmitted between members of the same family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Term Limit
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms an officeholder can serve, while, in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms.Contents1 History1.1 Ancient 1.2 Modern2 Types 3 Notable examples3.1 Relaxed term limits 3.2 Tightened term limits 3.3 People who would have run afoul of modern term limits4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient[edit] Term limits have a long history
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Osh
Osh
Osh
(Kyrgyz: Ош, Russian: Ош, Uzbek: O'sh) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". It is the oldest city in the country (estimated to be more than 3000 years old), and has served as the administrative center of Osh Region
Osh Region
since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 255,800 in 2012, comprising Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Russians, Tajiks, and other smaller ethnic groups
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