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Asian Steppe
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe
Steppe
or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia
Eurasia
in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches from Romania
Romania
and Moldova through Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, and Mongolia
Mongolia
to Manchuria, with one major exclave, the Pannonian steppe
Pannonian steppe
or Puszta, located mostly in Hungary.[1] Since the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age, the Steppe
Steppe
route has connected Eastern Europe, Central Asia, China, South Asia, and the Middle East economically, politically, and culturally through overland trade routes
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Orenburg Oblast
An oblast (/ˈɒbləst/ OB-ləst) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Official terms in successor states of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g., voblast (voblasts, voblasts', [ˈvobɫasʲtsʲ]) is used for regions of Belarus, and oblys (plural: oblystar) for regions of Kazakhstan. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English,[1] but it is, nevertheless, often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region"
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Transoxiana
Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as Mā warāʼ an-Nahr (Arabic: ما وراء النهر‎ Arabic pronunciation: [ˈmaː waˈraːʔ anˈnahr] – 'what [is] beyond the [Oxus] river') and in Persian as Farārūd (Persian: فرارود‬‎, Persian pronunciation: [fæɾɒːɾuːd]—'beyond the [Amudarya] river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan
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Eurasian Land Bridge
The Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge
(Russian: Евразийский сухопутный мост, Yevraziyskiy sukhoputniy most), sometimes called the New Silk Road
Silk Road
(Новый шёлковый путь, Noviy shyolkoviy put'), or Belt and Road Initiative
Belt and Road Initiative
is the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland between Pacific seaports in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and China
China
and seaports in Europe. The route, a transcontinental railroad and rail land bridge, currently comprises the Trans-Siberian Railway, which runs through Russia and is sometimes called the Northern East-West Corridor, and the New Eurasian Land Bridge
New Eurasian Land Bridge
or Second Eurasian Continental Bridge, running through China
China
and Kazakhstan
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Nomadic Empire
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars). They are the most prominent example of non-sedentary polities. Some nomadic empires operated by establishing a capital city inside a conquered sedentary state, and then by exploiting the existing bureaucrats and commercial resources of that non-nomadic society. As the pattern is repeated, the originally nomadic dynasty becomes culturally assimilated to the culture of the occupied nation before it is ultimately overthrown.[1] Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
described a similar cycle on a smaller scale in his Asabiyyah theory
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Tribal
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically, and/or historically, as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public to describe such communities
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Confederations
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.[1] Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defense, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the general government being required to provide support for all its members. Confederalism represents a main form of inter-governmentalism, this being defined as ‘any form of interaction between states which takes place on the basis of sovereign independence or government. The nature of the relationship among the member states constituting a confederation varies considerably. Likewise, the relationship between the member states and the general government, and the distribution of powers among them is highly variable. Some looser confederations are similar to international organisations
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Scythia
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Cimmerians
The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
(also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC [2] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. Probably originating in the Pontic steppe and invading by means of the Caucasus, they are likely to be those who in c. 714 BC assaulted Urartu, a state in north eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
subject to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. They were defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II
Sargon II
in 705 and turned towards Anatolia, conquering Phrygia
Phrygia
in 696/5. They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia; however an invasion of Assyrian controlled Anshan (Persia)
Anshan (Persia)
was thwarted. Soon after 619, Alyattes of Lydia
Lydia
defeated them
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Sarmatians
The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
(Latin: Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD. Originating in the central parts of the Eurasian Steppe, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
started migrating westward around the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, coming to dominate the closely related Scythians
Scythians
by 200 BC. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River
Vistula River
to the mouth of the Danube
Danube
and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the south
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Hunnic Empire
The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that
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Chorasmia
Khwarezm
Khwarezm
/kwəˈrɛzəm/ or Chorasmia /kəˈræzmiə/ (Persian: خوارزم‎, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the Iranian[1] Khwarezmian civilization and a series of kingdoms such as the Persian Empire, whose capitals were (among others) Kath, Gurganj
Gurganj
(the modern Köneürgenç) and – from the 16th century on – Khiva
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Sogdiana
Sogdia
Sogdia
or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent
Panjikent
and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, eighteenth in the list on the Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
of Darius the Great (i. 16)
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Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: степь, IPA: [stʲepʲ]) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld. The prairie of North America
North America
(especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-desert or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Xianbei
The Xianbei
Xianbei
(Chinese: 鮮卑; pinyin: Xiānbēi; Wade–Giles: Hsien-pi) were proto- Mongols
Mongols
residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China. Along with the Xiongnu, they were one of the major nomadic groups in northern China during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
and subsequent dynastic periods
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Mongols
The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language
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