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Asher Ben Jehiel
Asher ben Jehiel (Hebrew: אשר בן יחיאל‬, or Asher ben Yechiel, sometimes Asheri) (1250 or 1259 – 1327) was an eminent rabbi and Talmudist best known for his abstract of Talmudic law. He is often referred to as Rabbenu Asher, “our Rabbi Asher” or by the Hebrew acronym for this title, the ROSH (רא"ש‬, literally "Head")
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Posek
Posek (Hebrew: פוסק[poˈsek], pl. Poskim, פוסקים) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists. The decision of a posek is known as a psak din or psak halakha ("ruling of law"; pl. piskei din, piskei halakha) or simply a "psak". In Hebrew, פסק is the root implying to "stop" or "cease"—the posek brings the process of legal debate to finality
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Prayer
Prayer (from the Latin precari "to ask earnestly, beg, entreat") is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. Prayer can be a form of religious practice, may be either individual or communal and take place in public or in private. It may involve the use of words, song or complete silence. When language is used, prayer may take the form of a hymn, incantation, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. There are different forms of prayer such as petitionary prayer, prayers of supplication, thanksgiving, and praise. Prayer may be directed towards a deity, spirit, deceased person, or lofty idea, for the purpose of worshipping, requesting guidance, requesting assistance, confessing transgressions (sins) or to express one's thoughts and emotions
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— —— Amoraic (Gemara) —— —— Later ——
Halakhic Midrash

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Cologne
Cologne (English: /kəˈln/; German: Köln, pronounced [kœln] (About this sound listen), Ripuarian: Kölle [ˈkœɫə] (About this sound listen)) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas. Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders with Belgium and the Netherlands. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne
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Moses
Moses (/ˈmzɪz, -zɪs/) was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, and later in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed
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Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai (Arabic: طُور سِينَاء‎, translit. Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or Egyptian Arabic: جَبَل مُوسَىٰ‎, translit. Jabal Mūsā, lit. 'Mountain of Moses'; Classical Syriac: ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ‎ or Classical Syriac: ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ‎; Hebrew: הַר סִינַי‬, Har Sinai; Latin: Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions
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Geonim
Geonim (Hebrew: גאונים‬; Hebrew: [ɡeʔoˈnim]; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands. Geonim is the plural of גאון‬ (Gaon') [ɡaˈʔon], which means "pride" or "splendor" in Biblical Hebrew and since the 19th century "genius" as in modern Hebrew. As a title of a Babylonian college president it meant something like "His Excellency". The Geonim played a prominent and decisive role in the transmission and teaching of Torah and Jewish law. They taught Talmud and decided on issues on which no ruling had been rendered during the period of the Talmud
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Siddur
A siddur (Hebrew: סדור[siˈduʁ]; plural siddurim סדורים, [siduˈʁim]) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers
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Philosophy
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE)
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Solomon Ben Aderet
Solomon (/ˈsɒləmən/; Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה‬, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew יְדִידְיָהּYədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death
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Critical Theory
Critical Theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, Critical Theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them". In sociology and political philosophy, the term Critical Theory describes the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s
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God
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith. God is usually conceived as being omniscient (all-knowing), omnipotent (all-powerful), omnipresent (all-present) and as having an eternal and necessary existence. These attributes are used either in way of analogy or are taken literally. God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial). Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence (being outside nature) and immanence (being in nature) of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use terminology that is gender-specific and gender-biased. God has been conceived as either personal or impersonal
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The Torah (/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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Eretz Yisrael
The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern Eretz Yisrael, Tiberian ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, and Palestine (see also Israel (other)). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47
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