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Asher Peres
Asher Peres
Asher Peres
(Hebrew: אשר פרס‎; January 30, 1934 – January 1, 2005) was an Israeli physicist, considered a pioneer in quantum information theory, as well as the connections between quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity.[1] According to his autobiography, he was born Aristide Pressman in Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne
Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne
in France, where his father, a Polish electrical engineer, had found work laying down power lines. He was given the name Aristide at birth, because the name his parents wanted, Asher, the name of his maternal grandfather, was not on the list of permissible French given names. When he went to live in Israel, he changed his first name to Asher and, as was common among immigrants, changed his family name to the Hebrew Peres, which he used for the rest of his life.[2] Peres obtained his Ph.D
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Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (January 2009) Click [show] for important translation instructions.View a machine-translated version of the French article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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FORTRAN
Fortran
Fortran
(/ˈfɔːrtræn/; formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation[2]) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5] Fortran
Fortran
encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions
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Euclidean Vector
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric[1] or spatial vector,[2] or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction. Vectors can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. A Euclidean vector
Euclidean vector
is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B,[3] and denoted by A B → . displaystyle overrightarrow AB
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Michael Nielsen
Michael Aaron Nielsen (born January 4, 1974) is a quantum physicist, science writer, and computer programming researcher living in San Francisco.[3] Work[edit] In 2004 Nielsen was characterized as Australia's "youngest academic" and secured a Federation Fellowship at the University of Queensland; the fellowship was for five years.[4] He worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the Richard Chace Tolman Prize Fellow at Caltech, and a Senior Faculty Member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
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Uncertainty Principle
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities[1] asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known. Introduced first in 1927, by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, it states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.[2] The formal inequality relating the standard deviation of position σx and the standard deviation of momentum σp was derived by Earle Hesse Kennard[3] later that year and by Hermann Weyl[4] in 1928: σ x σ p ≥ ℏ 2     displaystyle sigma _ x sigma _ p geq frac
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Bell Telephone Company
The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts
on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company — the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company
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Speed Of Light
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is 7008299792458000000♠299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 7008300000000000000♠3.00×108 m/s, or 300,000 km/s (186,000 mi/s)[Note 3]). It is exact because the unit of length, the metre, is defined from this constant and the international standard for time.[2] According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all conventional matter and hence all known forms of information in the universe can travel. Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is in fact the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields travel in vacuum (including electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves). Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer
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William Wootters
William "Bill" Kent Wootters is an American theoretical physicist, and one of the founders of the field of quantum information theory. In a joint paper with Wojciech H. Zurek he proved the no cloning theorem, also independently discovered by Dennis Dieks. He is known for his contributions to the theory of quantum entanglement including quantitative measures of it, entanglement-assisted communication (notably quantum teleportation, discovered by Wootters and collaborators in 1993) and entanglement distillation. He is also credited by Benjamin Schumacher as being the inspiration behind the term qubit. He earned a B.S. from Stanford University
Stanford University
in 1973, and his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
in 1980
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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ArXiv
arXiv (pronounced "archive")[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008,[3][4] and hit a million by the end of 2014.[5][6] By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month.[6][7]Contents1 History 2 Peer review 3 Submission formats 4 Access 5 Copyright status of files 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994,[8] using the browser NCSA Mosaic
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Philosophy Of Science
Philosophy
Philosophy
of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. There is no consensus among philosophers about many of the central problems concerned with the philosophy of science, including whether science can reveal the truth about unobservable things and whether scientific reasoning can be justified at all. In addition to these general questions about science as a whole, philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences (such as biology or physics)
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Alex Barnett (mathematician)
Alex Barnett (born 1972) is an applied mathematician and musician who is a professor of mathematics at Dartmouth College.[1] Barnett is also a jazz and funk musician. He has composed the music for a number of films[2] by his wife director Liz Canner.Contents1 Career 2 Recognition 3 References 4 External linksCareer[edit] His high frequency eigenfunction calculations are some of the fastest in the world.[3] He attended Cambridge University and received his Ph.D in theoretical physics from Harvard University. He has written on topics such as efficient and accurate computational methods for waves, PDE eigenvalue problems, periodic problems, and quantum chaos.[4][5] He has also done research on mathematical ecology and inverse problems in medical imaging. Recognition[edit] Barnett won First Prize in the XXI International Physics Olympiad,[6] The Hockins Prize, The Kennedy Scholarship, The Karen E
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Studies In History And Philosophy Of Science Part B
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science is a series of three peer-reviewed academic journals published by Elsevier. It was established in 1970 as a single journal, and was split into two sections–Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A and Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics–in 1995. In 1998, a third section, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, was created.[1][2]Contents1 Part A 2 Part B 3 Part C 4 ReferencesPart A[edit]Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A  ISO 4 abbreviationStud. Hist. Philos. Sci
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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