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Artocarpus
ARTOCARPUS is a genus of approximately 60 trees and shrubs of Southeast Asian and Pacific origin, belonging to the mulberry family, Moraceae
Moraceae
. Most species of Artocarpus
Artocarpus
are restricted to Southeast Asia ; a few cultivated species are more widely distributed, especially A. altilis (breadfruit) and A. heterophyllus (jackfruit), which are cultivated throughout the tropics. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Uses * 4 Subgenera * 5 Selected species * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References DESCRIPTIONAll Artocarpus
Artocarpus
species are laticiferous trees or shrubs that are composed of leaves, twigs and stems capable of producing a milky sap . The fauna type is monoecious and produces unisexual flowers ; furthermore, both sexes are present within the same plant. The plants produce small, greenish, female flowers that grow on short, fleshy spikes
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Sap
SAP
SAP
may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science * 2 Technology * 3 Law and government * 4 Politics * 5 Transportation * 6 Other * 7 See also SCIENCE * Serum amyloid P component , the serum form of Amyloid P component * Seminal acid phosphatase , an enzyme produced by the prostate *
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Shrub
A SHRUB or BUSH is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs , shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height , and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall. Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender , periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses , are often termed "subshrubs ". CONTENTS * 1 Use in parks * 2 Botanical structure * 3 List of shrubs (bushes) * 4 References USE IN PARKSAn area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery . When clipped as topiary , suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning , in which hard cutting back to a "stool " results in long new stems known as "canes"
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Laticifer
A LATICIFER is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites . Laticifers may be divided into: * ARTICULATED LATICIFERS, i.e., composed of a series of cells joined together, or * NON-ARTICULATED LATICIFERS, consisting of one long coenocytic cell.Non-articulated laticifers begin their growth from the meristematic tissue of the embryo, termed the laticifer initial, and can exhibit continual growth throughout the lifetime of the plant. Laticifer tubes have irregularly edged walls and a larger inner diameter than the surrounding parenchyma cells. In the development of the cell, elongation occurs via karyokinesis and no cell plate develops resulting in coenocytic cells which extend throughout the plant. These cells can reach up to tens of centimeters long and can be branched or unbranched
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Tree
In botany , a TREE is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk , supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth , plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms , the tree ferns , bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion , stands 115.6 m (379 ft) high. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Leaf
A LEAF is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem . The leaves and stem together form the shoot . Leaves are collectively referred to as FOLIAGE, as in "autumn foliage". Diagram of a simple leaf. * Apex * Midvein (Primary vein) * Secondary vein. * Lamina. * Leaf
Leaf
margin * Petiole * Bud * StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ , borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis . In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll , is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Western Ghats
WESTERN GHATS (also known as SAHYADRI, meaning The Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment
Escarpment
of India. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan
Konkan
, along the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea

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Connation
CONNATION in plants is the developmental fusion of organs of the same type, for example, petals to one another to form a tubular corolla . This is in contrast to adnation , the fusion of dissimilar organs. Such organs are described as connate or adnate, respectively. When like organs that are usually well separated are placed next to each other, but not actually connected, they are described as connivent (that is the case for anthers in several genera, such as Solanum ). The stamens of this Hibiscus are synfilamentous
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Timber
LUMBER (American English; used only in North America) or TIMBER (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production . Lumber
Lumber
may also refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room , or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable and unwanted furniture. Lumber
Lumber
may be supplied either rough-sawn , or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood , rough lumber is the raw material for furniture -making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods ; but it is also readily available in softwoods , such as white pine and red pine , because of their low cost
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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James Cook
Captain JAMES COOK FRS (7 November 1728 – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy . Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia
Australia
and the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand . Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years\' War , and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec . This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Royal Society
Royal Society

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Conserved Name
A CONSERVED NAME or NOMEN CONSERVANDUM (plural NOMINA CONSERVANDA, abbreviated as NOM. CONS.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection. Nomen conservandum is a Latin
Latin
term, meaning "a name to be conserved". The terms are often used interchangeably, such as by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), while the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature favours "conserved name". The process for conserving botanical names is different from that for zoological names. Under the botanical code, names may also be "suppressed", NOMEN REJICIENDUM (plural NOMINA REJICIENDA or NOMINA UTIQUE REJICIENDA, abbreviated as NOM. REJ.), or rejected in favour of a particular conserved name, and combinations based on a suppressed name are also listed as nom. rej
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Germplasm Resources Information Network
GERMPLASM RESOURCES INFORMATION NETWORK or GRIN is an online USDA National Genetic Resources Program software project to comprehensively manage the computer database for the holdings of all plant germplasm collected by the National Plant Germplasm System . GRIN has extended its role to manage information on the germplasm reposits of insect (invertebrate ), microbial , and animal species (see Sub-Projects ). The site is a resource for identifying taxonomic information (scientific names) as well as common names on more than 500,000 accessions (distinct varieties , cultivars etc.) of plants covering 10,000 species; both economically important ones and wild species. It profiles plants that are invasive or noxious weeds, threatened or endangered, giving out data on worldwide distribution of its habitat; as well as passport information. GRIN also incorporates an Economic Plants Database
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