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Articles Of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States
United States
of America that served as its first constitution.[1] It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The federal government received only those powers which the colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.[2] The Articles formed a war-time confederation of states, with an extremely limited central government
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Ratification
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.[1] The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States
United States
and Canada
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Fiat Money
Fiat money
Fiat money
is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation. Fiat money
Fiat money
does not have use value, and has value only because a government maintains its value, or because parties engaging in exchange agree on its value.[1] It was introduced as an alternative to commodity money and representative money. Commodity money
Commodity money
is created from a good, often a precious metal such as gold or silver, which has uses other than as a medium of exchange (such a good is called a commodity). Representative money is similar to fiat money, but it represents a claim on a commodity (which can be redeemed to a greater or lesser extent).[2][3][note 1] The first use of fiat money was recorded in China
China
around 1000 AD. Since then, it has been used by various countries, usually concurrently with commodity currencies
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National Archives And Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration
(NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.[6] NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential proclamations and executive orders, and federal regulations
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Virginia
Virginia
Virginia
(/vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen); officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern[6] and Mid-Atlantic[7] regions of the United States
United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America,[8] and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision
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State Cession
The state cessions are those areas of the United States that the separate states ceded to the federal government in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
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Ohio River
The Ohio
Ohio
River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the United States. At the confluence, the Ohio
Ohio
is considerably bigger than the Mississippi
Mississippi
( Ohio
Ohio
at Cairo: 281,500 cu ft/s (7,960 m3/s);[2] Mississippi
Mississippi
at Thebes: 208,200 cu ft/s (5,897 m3/s)[3]) and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system. The 981-mile (1,579 km) river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U.S
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Maryland General Assembly
The Maryland
Maryland
General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland
Maryland
that convenes within the State House in Annapolis. It is a bicameral body: the upper chamber, the Maryland
Maryland
State Senate, has 47 representatives and the lower chamber, the Maryland
Maryland
House of Delegates, has 141 representatives. Members of both houses serve four-year terms. Each house elects its own officers, judges the qualifications and election of its own members, establishes rules for the conduct of its business, and may punish or expel its own members. The General Assembly meets each year for 90 days to act on more than 2,300 bills including the state's annual budget, which it must pass before adjourning sine die
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Sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty
is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies
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Battle Of Bunker Hill
United ColoniesConnecticut Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Great BritainCommanders and leaders William Prescott Israel Putnam Joseph Warren † John Stark William Howe Thomas Gage Sir Robert Pigot James Abercrombie † Henry Clinton Samuel Graves John Pitcairn †Strength~2,400[3] 3,000+[4]Casualties and losses115 killed, 305 wounded, 30 captured (20 POWs died) Total: 450[5] 19 officers killed 62 officers wounded 207 soldiers killed 766 soldiers wounded Total: 1,054[6]The Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston
Siege of Boston
in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after Bunker Hill in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which was peripherally involved in the battle
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Independence
Independence
Independence
is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.Contents1 Definition of independence1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy2 Declarations of independence 3 Historical overview 4 Continents 5 Notes 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinition of independence[edit] Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.[1] While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Coming Into Force
Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect. The term is closely related to the date of this transition.Contents1 General requirements 2 Treaties 3 Acts 4 United Kingdom4.1 Northern Ireland 4.2 Scotland5 History 6 Sources 7 See alsoGeneral requirements[edit] To come into force, a treaty or Act first needs to receive the required number of votes or ratifications
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Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7State of ConnecticutFlag SealNickname(s):The Constitution State (official) The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State The Provisions State The Land of Steady HabitsMotto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet

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New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Hampshire
is a state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine
Maine
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Canadian province
Canadian province
of Quebec
Quebec
to the north. New Hampshire
Hampshire
is the 5th smallest by land area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, and it was the first to establish its own state constitution
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Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America
North America
founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States
United States
of America. The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country
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