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Aronia
Aronia
Aronia
is a genus of deciduous shrubs, the chokeberries, in the family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
native to eastern North America
North America
and most commonly found in wet woods and swamps.[2][3][4] The genus is usually considered to contain two[5] or three[4][6] species, one of which is naturalized in Europe.[7] A fourth form that has long been cultivated under the name Aronia[6] is now considered to be an intergeneric hybrid, Sorbaronia mitschurinii. Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and as food products. The sour berries can be eaten raw off the bush, but are more frequently processed
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Malus Floribunda
Malus
Malus
floribunda, common name Japanese flowering crabapple,[1][2] Japanese crab,[3] purple chokeberry,[2] or showy crabapple,[2] originates from Japan and East Asia. It may be a wild species, or a hybrid of M. sieboldii x M. baccata.[citation needed]Contents1 Description 2 Resistance 3 Awards 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit]Red floribunda fruitsYellow floribunda fruits Malus
Malus
floribunda forms a round-headed, small deciduous tree with narrow leaves on arching branches. The flowers are white or pale pink, opening from crimson buds
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Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Naturalisation (biology)
In biology, naturalisation (or naturalization) is any process by which a non-native organism or species spreads into the wild and its reproduction is sufficient to maintain its population. Such populations are said to be naturalised. Some populations do not sustain themselves reproductively, but exist because of continued influx from elsewhere. Such a non-sustaining population, or the individuals within it, are said to be adventive.[1] Cultivated plants are a major source of adventive populations. Naturalised species may become invasive species if they become sufficiently abundant to have an adverse effect on native plants and animals. See also[edit]Indigenous (ecology) Endemic (ecology) Introduced species Invasive speciesReferences[edit]^ Warren L. Wagner, Derral R. Herbst, and Sy H. Sohmer. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i, Revised Edition, 1999
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Gummies
Gummis or jelly candies are a broad category of gelatine-based chewable sweets. Gummi bears are widely popular and are a well-known part of the sweets industry. Gummies are available in a wide variety of shapes including bears, bottles, worms, frogs, hamburgers, sharks, toy soldiers, full-size rats, large human body parts (such as hearts and feet), Ampelmännchen (the little figures on pedestrian traffic lights in the former GDR, Eastern Germany) and even the Smurfs. Various brands such as Haribo, Betty Crocker, Disney and Kellogg's manufacture various forms of Gummi snacks, often targeted at young children. The candy and the name "gummi" originated in Germany.[1]Contents1 History 2 Types of gummies2.1 Bears 2.2 Bottles 2.3 Rings 2.4 Red frogs 2.5 Road kill gummies 2.6 Teeth gummies 2.7 Worm gummies 2.8 Shark gummies 2.9 Vitamin gummies3 Health considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Tinctures
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome). To qualify as an alcoholic tincture, the extract should have an ethanol percentage of at least 25–60% (50–120 US proof).[citation needed] Sometimes an alcohol concentration as high as 90% (180 US proof) is used in such a tincture.[1] In herbal medicine, alcoholic tinctures are made with various ethanol concentrations, 25% being the most common. Herbal tinctures are not always made using ethanol as the solvent, though this is most commonly the case. Other solvents include vinegar, glycerol, diethyl ether and propylene glycol, not all of which can be used for internal consumption. Ethanol has the advantage of being an excellent solvent for both acidic and basic (alkaline) constituents. Glycerine can also be used, but when used in tincturing fashion is generally a poorer solvent
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Common Name
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case.[1] Sometimes common names are created by authorities on one particular subject, in an attempt to make it possible for members of the general public (including such interested parties as fishermen, farmers, etc.) to be able to refer to one particular species of organism without needing to be able to memorise or pronounce the Latinized scientific name
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Variety (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.[1] As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.[2]Contents1 Example 2 Definitions 3 Other nomenclature uses 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyExample[edit] The pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara
Escobaria vivipara
(Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade. The variety Escobaria vivipara var
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Polyphenolic
Polyphenols[1][2] (noun, pronunciation of the singular /ˌpɒliˈfiːnoʊl/[3] or /ˌpɒliˈfiːnɒl/;[4][5] also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid (image at right) and ellagitannin (image below). The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols.[1][6] The name derives from the Ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid (phenyl) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix)
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Leaf Shape
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets). The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article.Chart illustrating leaf morphology termsContents1 Leaf
Leaf
structure 2 Leaf
Leaf
and leaflet shapes 3 Edge 4 Leaf
Leaf
folding 5 Latin descriptions 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links Leaf
Leaf
structure[edit]A ternate compound leaf with a petiole but no rachis (or rachillae)Leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Crenate
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Pinnate
Pinnation
Pinnation
(also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis. Pinnation
Pinnation
occurs in biological morphology, in crystals,[1] such as some forms of ice or metal crystals,[2][3] and in patterns of erosion or stream beds.[4] The term derives from the Latin word pinna meaning "feather", "wing", or "fin". A similar concept is pectination, which is a comb-like arrangement of parts (arising from one side of an axis only). Pinnation
Pinnation
is commonly referred to in contrast to palmation, in which the parts or structures radiate out from a common point
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Trichomes
Trichomes (/ˈtraɪkoʊmz/ or /ˈtrɪkoʊmz/), from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists. They are of diverse structure and function. Examples are hairs, glandular hairs, scales, and papillae. A covering of any kind of hair on a plant is an indumentum, and the surface bearing them is said to be pubescent.Contents1 Algal trichomes 2 Plant trichomes2.1 Aerial surface hairs3 Trichome and Root Hair Development 4 Significance for taxonomy 5 Significance for plant molecular biology 6 Uses 7 Defense7.1 Stinging trichomes8 See also 9 ReferencesAlgal trichomes[edit] Certain, usually filamentous, algae have the terminal cell produced into an elongate hair-like structure called a trichome. The same term is applied to such structures in some cyanobacteria, such as Spirulina and Oscillatoria
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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