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Arnold Toynbee
Arnold Toynbee
Arnold Toynbee
(/ˈtɔɪnbi/; 23 August 1852 – 9 March 1883) was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.[1]Contents1 Life and career1.1 Toynbee genealogy2 Economic history 3 Social commitment 4 Views on the Industrial Revolution 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksLife and career[edit] Toynbee was born in London, the son of the physician Joseph Toynbee, a pioneering otolaryngologist. His sister was the bacteriologist Grace Frankland.[2] Toynbee was the uncle, via his brother Harry Valpy Toynbee, of universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee
Joseph Toynbee
(1889–1975). The two are often confused for each other due to the similarity of their names. Toynbee attended public schools in Blackheath and Woolwich
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Social Darwinism
The term social Darwinism
Darwinism
is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society. The term itself emerged in the 1880s, and it gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these ways of thinking. The majority of those who have been categorized as social Darwinists did not identify themselves by such a label.[1] Scholars debate the extent to which the various Social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues
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Gilbert Murray
George Gilbert Aimé Murray, OM (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British[1] classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece, perhaps the leading authority in the first half of the twentieth century. He is the basis for the character of Adolphus Cusins in his friend George Bernard Shaw's play Major Barbara, and also appears as the chorus figure in Tony Harrison's play Fram.Contents1 Early life 2 Classicist2.1 Academic career 2.2 Greek drama 2.3 The Ritualists3 In public life3.1 Liberal Party politics 3.2 Activist 3.3 Involvement with Wells 3.4 Psychical research4 Humanism 5 Awards and honours 6 Family 7 Works7.1 Translation 7.2 Classical studies 7.3 Other8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksEarly life[edit] Murray was born George Gilbert Aimé Murray in Sydney, Australia
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Classicist
Classics
Classics
or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world, particularly of its languages and literature ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Classical Latin) but also of Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a necessary part of a rounded education
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Public Intellectual
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems
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Savile Row
Savile Row
Savile Row
(pronounced /ˌsævɪl ˈroʊ/) is a street in Mayfair, central London. Known principally for its traditional bespoke tailoring for men, the street has had a varied history that has included accommodating the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society at 1 Savile Row, where significant British explorations to Africa and the South Pole
South Pole
were planned; and more recently, the Apple office of the Beatles at 3 Savile Row, where the band's final live performance was held on the roof of the building. Originally named Savile Street, it was built between 1731 and 1735 as part of the development of the Burlington Estate. It was designed under the influence of Burlington's interpretation of Palladian architecture, known as "Burlingtonian"
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Free Trade
Free trade
Free trade
is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries. In government, free trade is predominately advocated by political parties that hold right-wing economic positions, while economically left-wing political parties generally support protectionism.[1][2][3][4] Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) multilateral trade agreements. Free trade
Free trade
is additionally exemplified by the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
and the Mercosur, which have established open markets
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Laissez-faire
Laissez-faire (/ˌlɛseɪˈfɛər/; French: [lɛsefɛʁ] ( listen); from French: laissez faire, lit. 'let do') is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies. The phrase laissez-faire is part of a larger French phrase and basically translates to "let (it/them) do", but in this context usually means to "let go".[1]Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Fundamentals 3 History of laissez-faire debate3.1 Europe 3.2 United States4 Raw capitalism 5 Critiques 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further readingEtymology and usage[edit] The term laissez faire likely originated in a meeting that took place around 1681 between powerful French Comptroller-General of Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
and a group of French businessmen headed by M. Le Gendre
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Frederick Rogers (bookbinder)
Frederick Rogers (1846–1915) was an English bookbinder, trades unionist, writer and journalist. He is notable as first chairman of the Labour Representation Committee, the organisation to which the Labour Party traces its origins, as well as for a lifetime of work dedicated to educational improvement for the working class, and to the introduction of a general tax-funded system of old-age pensions. Biography[edit] Rogers was born on 27 April 1846 in Whitechapel, London to a working-class family. His father, also Frederick Rogers, was variously a dock labourer, sailor, and linen drapers assistant; his mother Susan Bartrup a laundress. He left school at or before age 10, and after a period as an ironmonger's boy was employed in a stationery warehouse where he learned the skilled craft of bookbinding
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Settlement Movement
The settlement movement was a reformist social movement, what beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Its main object was the establishment of "settlement houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of, their low-income neighbors. The "settlement houses" provided services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas.[1]Contents1 History1.1 England 1.2 United States 1.3 Russia2 Description 3 Legacy and impact 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] England[edit] The movement started in London in 1884 with the founding of Toynbee Hall
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Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Whitechapel
is a district in the East End of London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is located 3.4 miles (5.5 km) east of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
and roughly bounded by Middlesex Street and Mansell Street to the west, Fashion Street to the north, Cambridge Heath
Cambridge Heath
Road and Sidney Street to the east and The Highway
The Highway
to the south. Because the area is close to the London Docklands
London Docklands
and east of the city, it has been a popular place for immigrants and the working class
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Labourer
A laborer is a person who works in one of the construction trades, by tradition, considered unskilled manual labor -- though in practice the laborers are a skilled trade that has reliability and strength as core characteristics. Laborers are employed in the construction industry such as road paving, commercial buildings, bridges, tunnels. Laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air tools, and small heavy equipment, and act as assistants to other trades as well [1] such as operators or cement masons. The 1st century BC engineer Vitruvius writes about laborer practices at that time; a good crew of laborers is just as valuable as any other aspect of construction
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Co-operative
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".[1] Cooperatives may include:non-profit community organizations businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services (a consumer cooperative) organisations managed by the people who work there (worker cooperatives) organisations managed by the people to whom they provide accommodation (housing cooperatives) hybrids such as worker cooperatives that are also consumer cooperatives or credit unions multi-stakeholder cooperatives such as those that bring together civil society and local actors to deliver community needs second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperativesResearch published by the
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East London
East London
London
is a popularly and informally defined part of London, capital of the United Kingdom, lying east of the ancient City and north of the River Thames. East London
London
comprises the whole of six modern London
London
Boroughs – Tower Hamlets, Newham, Waltham Forest, Barking
Barking
and Dagenham, Redbridge, Havering – and the greater part of a seventh, Hackney. The East End of London
East End of London
is a subset of East London, consisting of areas close to the ancient City of London. The Eastern (E) Postal District is a different subset of East London and there is also an "East" sub-region used in the London
London
Plan for planning policy reporting purposes
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