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Army Gold Cross
The Army Gold Medal
Army Gold Medal
(1808–1814), also known as the Peninsular Gold Medal, with an accompanying Gold Cross, was a British campaign medal awarded in recognition of field and general officers' successful commands in campaigns, predominantly the Peninsular War.[1] It was not a general medal, since it was issued only to those whose rank was no less than that of battalion commander.Contents1 Awards 2 Discontinuation 3 Available clasps 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksAwards[edit] The medal came in three styles: the Large Medal, the Small Medal, and the Peninsular Cross. Each style was supplemented with clasps identifying the battles involved. The Large Medal (2 inches (51 mm) diameter) was restricted to generals, while lower-ranking officers were awarded the Small Medal. The Peninsular Cross, in cross pattée style, was awarded to those with four or more actions
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
was a sovereign country in western Europe, the predecessor to the modern United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. It was established on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain, with its unsurpassed Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and British Empire, became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War
Crimean War
with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century.[1] Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century
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Battle Of Crysler's Farm
The Battle of Crysler's Farm, also known as the Battle of Crysler's Field,[5] was fought on 11 November 1813, during the Anglo-American War of 1812
War of 1812
(the name Chrysler's Farm is sometimes used for the engagement, but Crysler is the proper spelling). A British and Canadian force won a victory over a US force which greatly outnumbered them. The US defeat prompted them to abandon the St. Lawrence Campaign, their major strategic effort in the autumn of 1813.Contents1 Saint Lawrence Campaign1.1 The American plan 1.2 American preliminary moves 1.3 Wilkinson's moves 1.4 British counter-moves2 Battle2.1 British dispositions 2.2 Action 2.3 Casualties3 Aftermath 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 External linksSaint Lawrence Campaign[edit] The American plan[edit] The battle arose from a United States
United States
military campaign which was intended to capture Montreal
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Battle Of Barrosa
Coordinates: 36°22′19″N 6°10′35″W / 36.3719°N 6.1765°W / 36.3719; -6.1765Battle of BarrosaPart of the Peninsular WarThe Battle of Chiclana, 5th March 1811 by Louis-François Lejeune (1824)Date 5 March 1811Location Playa de la Barrosa, near Cádiz, SpainResultTactical allied victory Strategically indecisiveBelligerents Spain United Kingdom Portugal French EmpireCommanders and leaders Manuel la Peña Thomas Graham Marshal VictorStrength5,200 British and Portuguese c. 10,000 Spanish10,160Casualties and losses1,240 killed or wounded (British and Portuguese) 300–400 Spanishc. 2,380 killed or woundedv t ePeninsular War Siege of Cádiz, 1810–1812Cádiz Fuengirola Baza Barrosa Zújar 1st Bornos Tarifa 2nd BornosMap of the environs of Cádiz
Cádiz
(c
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Battle Of Fuentes De Onoro
In the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro
Fuentes de Oñoro
(3–5 May 1811), the British-Portuguese Army
British-Portuguese Army
under Lord Wellington
Wellington
checked an attempt by the French Army of Portugal
Portugal
under Marshal André Masséna
André Masséna
to relieve the besieged city of Almeida.Contents1 Background 2 Organisation2.1 The French Army of Portugal 2.2 The British-Portuguese army3 Battle 4 Consequences 5 In fiction 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBackground[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Battle Of Albuera
Coordinates: 38°43′N 6°49′W / 38.717°N 6.817°W / 38.717; -6.817Battle of AlbueraPart of the Peninsular WarMarshal Beresford disarming a Polish lancer at the Battle of Albuera. Print by T
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Invasion Of Java (1811)
United Kingdom East India Company FranceCommanders and leadersRobert Stopford Samuel Auchmuty Rollo Gillespie Jan Willem JanssensStrength12,000 17,000Casualties and losses1,000 2,000v t eDutch colonial campaignsBantam (1601) Malacca
Malacca
(1606) Cape Rachado (1606) Banda Islands
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Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
(Spanish pronunciation: [θi̯uˈðað roˈðɾiɣo]) is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca,[3] in western Spain, with a population in 2016 of 12,896. It is also the seat of a judicial district. The site of Ciudad Rodrigo, perched atop a rocky rise on the right bank of the River Águeda, has been occupied since the Neolithic Age. Known also as Mirobriga by those who wish to associate the city with an ancient Celtic village in the outskirts of the modern city. A key border fortress, it was the site of a 10-day siege by the Duke of Wellington
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Battle Of Badajoz (1812)
In the Siege of Badajoz
Badajoz
(16 March – 6 April 1812), also called the Third Siege of Badajoz, an Anglo-Portuguese Army, under General Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington), besieged Badajoz, Spain
Spain
and forced the surrender of the French garrison. The siege was one of the bloodiest in the Napoleonic Wars[2] and was considered a costly victory by the British, with some 4,800 Allied soldiers killed in a few short hours of intense fighting during the storming of the breaches as the siege drew to an end. Enraged at the huge number of casualties they suffered in seizing the city, the troops broke into houses and stores consuming vast quantities of alcohol with many of them then going on a rampage
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Battle Of Salamanca
In Battle of Salamanca
Salamanca
(in French and Spanish known as "Battle of Arapiles") an Anglo-Portuguese army under the Duke of Wellington defeated Marshal Auguste Marmont's French forces among the hills around Arapiles, south of Salamanca, Spain on 22 July 1812 during the Peninsular War. A Spanish division was also present but took no part in the battle. The battle involved a succession of flanking manoeuvres in oblique order, initiated by the British heavy cavalry brigade and Pakenham's 3rd division, and continued by the cavalry and the 4th, 5th and 6th divisions. These attacks resulted in a rout of the French left wing. Both Marmont and his deputy commander, General Bonet, received shrapnel wounds in the first few minutes of firing
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Fort Detroit
Fort
Fort
Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort
Fort
Detroit
Detroit
was a fort established on the west bank of the Detroit River
Detroit River
by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. The site of the former fort, north of the Rouge River, is now within the city of Detroit
Detroit
in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Michigan, an area bounded by Larned Street, Griswold Street, and the Civic Center (now occupied by office towers). In the 18th century, French colonial settlements developed on both sides of the river, based on the fur trade, missions and farms. The fort was taken over by the British after the French surrendered Montreal in 1760 during the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(part of the Seven Years' War)
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Battle Of The Chateauguay
23 dead 33 wounded 29 missing[5]National Historic Site of CanadaOfficial name Battle of the Châteauguay National Historic Site of CanadaDesignated 1920v t eSt. Lawrence/ Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
frontier1st Sacket's Harbor Gananoque 1st Lacolle Mills Lake Ontario Elizabethtown Ogdensburg York 2nd Sacket's Harbor Chateauguay Crysler's Farm 2nd Lacolle Mills Fort Oswego Big Sandy Creek PlattsburghThe Battle of the Chateauguay
Battle of the Chateauguay
was an engagement of the War of 1812
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Battle Of Vitoria
60,00049,000 infantry 11,000 cavalry 151 guns82,00057,000 British 16,000 Portuguese 8,000 Spanish 96 gunsCasualties and losses~8,000 dead, wounded or captured[1] All 151 guns captured or destroyed. King Joseph's baggage train captured.5,158 dead or wounded[2]3,675 British 921 Portuguese 562 SpanishPeninsular War Vitoria and the Pyrenees, 1813–1814Morales San Millan Vitoria Tolosa 1st San Sebastián PyreneesMaya RoncesvallesLizasso Sorauren Buenza 2nd San Sebastián San Marcial Bidassoa Pamplona Nivelle Nive Garris Orthez Toulouse BayonneAt the Battle of Vitoria
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Campaign Medal
A campaign medal is a military decoration which is awarded to a member of the military who serves in a designated military operation or performs duty in a geographical theater. Campaign medals are very similar to service medals but carry a higher status as the award usually involves deployment to a foreign region or service in a combat zone. History[edit] Campaign medals were first invented to recognize general military service in war, in contrast to meritorious decorations which were only issued on a small scale for acts of heroism and bravery
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Battle Of The Pyrenees
The Battle of the Pyrenees
Battle of the Pyrenees
was a large-scale offensive launched[5] on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult
Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult
from the Pyrénées region on Emperor Napoleon’s order, in the hope of relieving French garrisons under siege at Pamplona
Pamplona
and San Sebastián. After initial success the offensive ground to a halt in face of increased allied resistance under the command of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington. Soult abandoned the offensive on 30 July and headed toward France, having failed to relieve either garrison. The Battle of the Pyrenees
Battle of the Pyrenees
involved several distinct actions. On 25 July, Soult and two French corps fought the reinforced British 4th Division and a Spanish division at the Battle of Roncesvalles
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Siege Of San Sebastián
In the Siege of San Sebastián
San Sebastián
(7 July – 8 September 1813) Allied forces under the command of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington captured the city of San Sebastián
San Sebastián
in northern Basque Country from its French garrison under Louis Emmanuel Rey. The attack resulted in the ransacking and devastation of the town by fire.Contents1 Situation 2 Forces 3 Approaches 4 First Siege 5 Second Siege 6 Ransacking and burning of San Sebastian 7 Consequences 8 External links 9 Notes, citations, and references9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations 9.3 ReferencesSituation[edit] After winning the decisive Battle of Vitoria
Battle of Vitoria
on 21 June 1813, Wellington's army advanced into the western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
to take the mountain passes and to face Marshal Soult's who had retreated back to France
France
to try to reorganise his army
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