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Aristophanes
Aristophanes
Aristophanes
(/ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz/ or /ˌɛrɪˈstɒfəniːz/;[2] Greek: Ἀριστοφάνης, pronounced [aristopʰánɛːs]; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Latin: Cydathenaeum),[3] was a comic playwright of ancient Athens. Eleven of his forty plays survive virtually complete
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Deme
In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Greek: δῆμος) was a suburb of Athens or a subdivision of Attica, the region of Greece
Greece
surrounding Athens. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Attica
Attica
was divided into 139 demes[1] to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127)
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Delian League
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC,[1] was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150,[2] 173,[3] to 330 [4] under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire
Empire
after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea
Battle of Plataea
at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern[5] name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture,[6] Pericles
Pericles
moved it to Athens in 454 BC.[7] Shortly after its inception, Athens began to use the League's navy for its own purposes – which led to its naming by historians as the Athenian Empire. This behavior frequently led to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the League
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Quintilian
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35 – c. 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance
Renaissance
writing. In English translation, he is usually referred to as Quintilian
Quintilian
(/kwɪnˈtɪliən/), although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are occasionally seen, the latter in older texts.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Institutio Oratoria 4 Placement of Quintilian's rhetoric 5 Influence of Quintilian 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksLife[edit] Quintilian
Quintilian
was born c. 35 in Calagurris (Calahorra, La Rioja) in Hispania. His father, a well-educated man, sent him to Rome
Rome
to study rhetoric early in the reign of Nero. While there, he cultivated a relationship with Domitius Afer, who died in 59
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Polis
Polis
Polis
(/ˈpɒlɪs/; Greek: πόλις pronounced [pólis]), plural poleis (/ˈpɒleɪz/, πόλεις [póleːs]), literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens
Classical Athens
and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state". These cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra). The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin
Latin
word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity
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Satyr
In Greek mythology, a satyr (UK: /ˈsætə/, US: /ˈseɪtər/;[1] Greek: σάτυρος satyros,[2] pronounced [sátyros]) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.[3] Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but, in 6th-century BC black-figure pottery, human legs are the most common.[4] The faun is a similar woodland-dwelling creature from Roman mythology, which had the body of a man, but the legs, horns, and tail of a goat.[5] In myths, both are often associated with pipe-playing. Greek-speaking Romans often used the Greek term saturos when referring to the Latin faunus, and eventually syncretized the two. (The female "Satyresses" were a later invention of poets.) They are also known for their focus on sexual desires
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Choregus
In the theatre of ancient Greece, the chorêgos (pl. chorêgoi; Greek: χορηγός, Greek etymology: χορός "chorus" + ἡγεῖσθαι "to lead")[n 1] was a wealthy Athenian citizen who assumed the public duty, or choregiai, of financing the preparation for the chorus and other aspects of dramatic production that were not paid for by the government of the polis or city-state.[3] Modern Anglicized forms of the word include choragus and choregus, with the accepted plurals being the Latin
Latin
forms choregi and choragi.[2] In modern Greek the word χορηγός is synonymous with the word "grantor".[4] Choregoi were appointed by the archon and the tribes of Athenian citizens from among the Athenian citizens of great wealth. Service as a choregos, though an honor, was a duty for wealthy citizens and was part of the liturgical system designed to improve the city-state's economic stability through the use of private wealth to fund public good
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SLANDER
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.[1] Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed.[2] Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel.[3] False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading.[4] In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong.[5] The
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Graces
In Greek mythology, a Charis (/ˈkeɪrɪs/; Greek: Χάρις, pronounced [kʰáris]) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites
Charites
/ˈkærɪtiːz/ (Χάριτες [kʰáritɛːs]) or Graces. The usual list, from youngest to oldest is Aglaea
Aglaea
("Splendor"), Euphrosyne ("Mirth"), and Thalia ("Good Cheer"). In Roman mythology
Roman mythology
they were known as the Gratiae, the "Graces". In some variants, Charis was one of the Graces and was not the singular form of their name. The Charites
Charites
were usually considered the daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and Eurynome, though they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus
Dionysus
and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
or of Helios
Helios
and the naiad Aegle
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Archon
Archon
Archon
(Greek: ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office
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Aegina
Aegina
Aegina
(/iːˈdʒaɪnə/; Greek: Αίγινα, Aígina [ˈeʝina], Ancient Greek: Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands
Saronic Islands
of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 27 kilometres (17 miles) from Athens
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Inscriptiones Graecae
The Inscriptiones Graecae (IG), Latin for Greek inscriptions, is an academic project originally begun by the Prussian Academy of Science, and today continued by its successor organisation, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Its aim is to collect and publish all known ancient inscriptions from the mainland and islands of Greece. The project was designed as a continuation of the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum (Corpus of Greek Inscriptions, abbreviated CIG) published by August Böckh between 1825 and 1860, and as a parallel to the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Corpus of Latin Inscriptions) founded by Theodor Mommsen in 1847. From 1860 to 1902, it was directed by Adolf Kirchhoff
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Greek Chorus
A Greek chorus, or simply chorus (Greek: χορός, khoros) in the context of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tragedy, comedy, satyr plays, and modern works inspired by them, is a homogeneous, non-individualised group of performers, who comment with a collective voice on the dramatic action.[1] The chorus consisted of between 12 and 50 players, who variously danced, sang or spoke their lines in unison and sometimes wore masks.Contents1 Etymology 2 Dramatic function 3 Choral structure and size 4 Stage management 5 Decline in antiquity 6 Modern choruses 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Historian H. D. F
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League
Delian League
led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta
Sparta
launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC
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