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Arid
A region is ARID when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic . Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America , Central America
Central America
and Australia
Australia
. CHANGE OVER TIME THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere
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Saturation Vapor Pressure
VAPOR PRESSURE or EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system . The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile . The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
Clausius–Clapeyron relation

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Relative Humidity
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity
Relative humidity
depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. It requires less water vapor to attain high relative humidity at low temperatures; more water vapour is required to attain high relative humidity in warm or hot air
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Atmosphere
An ATMOSPHERE (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapor', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere' ) is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body , that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is mostly composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration , nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids and carbon dioxide is used by plants , algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis . The atmosphere helps protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation , solar wind and cosmic rays
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Individual Growth
ERIKSON\'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, as articulated by Erik Erikson , in collaboration with Joan Erikson , is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages , in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood . All stages are present at birth but only begin to unfold according to both a natural scheme and one's ecological and cultural upbringing. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. However, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to the next stage. The outcome of one stage is not permanent and can be modified by later experiences
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Desiccation Tolerance
DESICCATION TOLERANCE refers to the ability of an organism to withstand or endure extreme dryness, or drought -like conditions. Plants and animals living in arid or periodically arid environments such as temporary streams or ponds may face the challenge of desiccation, therefore physiological or behavioral adaptations to withstand these periods are necessary to ensure survival. In particular, insects occupy a wide range of ecologically diverse niches and, so, exhibit a variety of strategies to avoid desiccation. In general, desiccation resistance in insects is measured by the change in mass during dry conditions. The overall mass difference between measurements before and after aridity exposure is attributed to body water loss, as respiratory water loss is generally considered negligible
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Morphogenesis
MORPHOGENESIS (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation , unified in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). The process controls the organized spatial distribution of cells during the embryonic development of an organism . Morphogenesis
Morphogenesis
can take place also in a mature organism, in cell culture or inside tumor cell masses. Morphogenesis
Morphogenesis
also describes the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage in their life cycle, or describes the evolution of a body structure within a taxonomic group
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National Diet Library
The NATIONAL DIET LIBRARY (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan
Japan
. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan
Japan
(国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress
Library of Congress

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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair
Advance Australia Fair
" CAPITAL Canberra
Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E
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Semi-arid Climate
A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE or STEPPE CLIMATE is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration , but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. Regions with semi-arid climates BSh BSk CONTENTS * 1 Defining attributes of semi-arid climates * 2 Hot semi-arid climates * 3 Cold semi-arid climates * 4 Regions of varying classification * 5 See also * 6 Charts of selected cities * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINING ATTRIBUTES OF SEMI-ARID CLIMATESA more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification , which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential
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Central America
CENTRAL AMERICA (Spanish : América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent , which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize
Belize
, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador , Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Panama
Panama

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Deserts And Xeric Shrublands
This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN DESERTS. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Deserts may be able to help recruit an expert. (June 2014) Extent of deserts and xeric shrublands DESERTS AND XERIC SHRUBLANDS are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation. They form the largest terrestrial biome, covering 19% of Earth
Earth
's land surface area. CONTENTS * 1 Character of the biome * 2 Desertification
Desertification
* 3 Desert
Desert
and xeric shrublands ecoregions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTER OF THE BIOME Main article: Desert
Desert
Further information: Xerophyte
Xerophyte
and Xerocole This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Drought
A DROUGHT is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water . A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy . Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour . Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti ), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands
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