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Ari Greenberg
ARI DAVID GREENBERG (born April 1, 1981 in Malibu, California
Malibu, California
) is an American world junior champion in contract bridge . A Stanford computer science graduate, Greenberg is employed at Facebook
Facebook
. Previously, he has also been employed at Bridge Base and Google
Google
. He currently resides in Menlo Park, California
Menlo Park, California

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Laws Of Duplicate Bridge
The LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE (also known as the LAWS OF DUPLICATE CONTRACT BRIDGE and the LAWS OF CONTRACT BRIDGE) is the official rule book of duplicate bridge promulgated by the World Bridge Federation (WBF). The first Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge were published in 1928. They were revised in 1933, 1935, 1943, 1949, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1997, 2007 and 2017. The Laws are effective worldwide for all duplicate bridge tournaments sponsored by WBF, zonal, national and subordinate organizations (which includes most bridge clubs). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Contents * 3 Irregularities * 3.1 Revoke * 3.2 Call out of turn * 3.3 Insufficient or inadmissible call * 3.4 Exposed card * 3.5 Play out of turn * 3.6 Unauthorized information * 3.7 Mistaken bid or explanation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe laws were greatly influenced by Harold S
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History Of Contract Bridge
The HISTORY OF CONTRACT BRIDGE , one of the world's most popular partnership card games, may be dated from the early 16th-century invention of trick-taking games such as whist . Bridge departed from whist with the creation of Biritch (or "Russian Whist") in the 19th century, and evolved through the late 19th and early 20th centuries to form the present game. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Boom years * 3 Recent developments * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGINSAccording to the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
, the word bridge is the English pronunciation of the game called "biritch ". It followed on from whist , which initially was the dominant trick-playing game and enjoyed a loyal following for centuries. The oldest known reference to the rules of the game dates from 1886 and calls it "Biritch, or Russian Whist"
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Masterpoints
MASTERPOINTS or MASTER POINTS are points awarded by bridge organisations to individuals for success in competitive bridge tournaments run under their auspices. Generally, recipients must be members in good standing of the issuing organisation. At the international level, competitions and point awards are administered by the World Bridge Federation (WBF); its affiliates at the multi-national level, such as the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL), also issue points as do more local organisations such as the English Bridge Union (EBU), and the Deutsche Bridge Verband (DBV) and independent ones such as the American Bridge Association (ABA). In general, each organisation has its own scheme for the categorization of competitive bridge events and has a parallel scheme for awarding various categories of points to players who are successful in them
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Minibridge
MINIBRIDGE is a simplified form of the complex card game Contract Bridge designed to expose newcomers to declarer and defensive playing techniques without the burden of learning a detailed bridge bidding system . The game was first introduced in France and the Netherlands in the 1990s. The variant described in this article is the one advertised by the English Bridge Union for use in primary schools as a way to improve pupils' performance in mathematics. Like other forms of bridge, Minibridge is played by four players in fixed partnerships, sitting crosswise. A full pack of 52 cards is dealt to the players, each receiving 13 cards. As in contract bridge, it is then decided which player becomes declarer, but a key innovation of Minibridge is that this decision is taken out of the players' hands. Declarer's partner then lays open their hand, and declarer announces a contract
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Neuberg Formula
In duplicate bridge pairs tournaments, the NEUBERG FORMULA is a method of fairly adjusting match point scores when not all boards have been played the same number of times. The objective is to give equal weight to each board by calculating the expected number of match points that would have been earned if the board had been played the full number of times. A board might not have been played the full number of times because: * the movement was not completed, or * there was a phantom pair , or * a board had to be averaged because of an irregularity of some sort.The method is: * Add 1 to the number of match points scored
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High Card By Suit
HIGH CARD BY SUIT and LOW CARD BY SUIT refer to assigning relative values to playing cards of equal rank based on their suit . No standard ranking of suits exists for card games and not all games incorporate a suit ranking feature. When suit ranking is applied, the two most common conventions are: * Ascending alphabetical order: clubs (lowest), followed by diamonds, hearts, and spades (highest). This ranking is used in the game of bridge . * Alternating colors: diamonds (lowest), followed by clubs, hearts, and spades (highest). This ranking is used in the Chinese card game Big Two or Choh Dai Di.CONTENTS * 1 Poker
Poker
* 2 Contract bridge
Contract bridge
* 3 References * 4 External links POKERMost poker games do not rank suits; the ace of clubs is just as good as the ace of spades. However, small issues (such as deciding who deals first) are sometimes resolved by dealing one card to each player
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Glossary Of Contract Bridge Terms
These terms are used in contract bridge , using duplicate or rubber scoring. Some of them are also used in whist , bid whist , the obsolete game auction bridge , and other trick-taking games . This glossary supplements the Glossary of card game terms . In the following entries, BOLDFACE LINKS are external to the glossary and plain links reference other glossary entries. Contents * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * See also * References * Further reading * External links 0–9 0314, 3014, or 3014 RKCB A mnemonic for the original (Roman) response structure to the ROMAN KEY CARD BLACKWOOD convention
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Duplicate Bridge
DUPLICATE BRIDGE is the most widely used variation of contract bridge in club and tournament play. It is called duplicate because the same bridge deal (i.e. the specific arrangement of the 52 cards into the four hands) is played at each table and scoring is based on relative performance. In this way, every hand, whether strong or weak, is played in competition with others playing identical cards, and the element of skill is heightened while that of chance is reduced. Duplicate bridge
Duplicate bridge
stands in contrast to rubber bridge where each hand is freshly dealt and where scores may be more affected by chance in the short run. Bridge boards , simple four-way card holders, are used to enable each player's hand to be passed intact to the next table that must play the deal, and final scores are calculated by comparing each pair's result with others who played the same hand
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Duplicate Bridge Movements
A DUPLICATE BRIDGE MOVEMENT is a scheme used in a duplicate bridge tournament to arrange which competitors play which opponents when, and which boards they play. The arrangement has to satisfy a number of constraints which often conflict to some extent, and compromises may be required. The resolution of these compromises is to a considerable extent a matter of taste, and if possible the players should be consulted as to their preferences. Movements are categorized by the type of event—Individual, Pairs, or Teams
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Five-suit Bridge
FIVE-SUIT BRIDGE is a late 1930s variation of contract bridge played with a deck of 65 playing cards divided into five suits . HISTORYIn the summer of 1937 in Vienna, Walter W. Marseille , with the help of Paul Stern , published rules for five-suit bridge which included a fifth suit of green Leaves, taken from German-suited William Tell cards . This set off a fad for five-suited decks which would last until the middle of 1938. De La Rue of London published packs called Five-Suit Bridge Playing Cards. This deck contained cards using blue crowns called Royals as a fifth suit. In the new suit, the court cards used the Paris pattern\'s heart suit designs. Waddingtons ' print was like De La Rue's with the exception of more detailed Royal crown pips. They also published several decks that used green crowns but the face cards for that suit were a duplicate of other English pattern suits
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Goulash (bridge)
GOULASH (also Ghoulie) is a style of playing the card game of bridge , normally in friendly play such as rubber bridge , in which the cards are not thoroughly shuffled between consecutive deals. The aim is to create deals where the suits are more unevenly distributed between the players, thus creating "wild" deals in order to make the game more vivid. Goulash dealing has variations; basically, each player sorts the cards from the previous deal by suits, and all four hands are stacked back in the deck. The deck is then cut once or twice, and cards are then dealt in groups of 4-5-4 or 5-5-3, instead of one at a time as usual. Some players play a goulash in rubber bridge only when the previous deal was passed out; others play full goulash rubbers. In both cases, at least a game must be bid in the goulash deal, otherwise, the partial (part score) contract is discarded and the goulash redealt
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Rubber Bridge
RUBBER BRIDGE is a form of contract bridge played by two competing pairs using a particular method of scoring. A rubber is completed when one pair becomes first to win two games, each game presenting a score of 100 or more contract points ; a new game ensues until one pair has won two games to conclude the rubber. Owing to the availability of various additional bonus and penalty points in the scoring, it is possible, though less common, to win the rubber by amassing more total points despite losing two games out of three. Rubber bridge involves a high degree of skill but there is also a fair amount of luck involved in who gets the best cards
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Screen (bridge)
A SCREEN is a device used in some tournaments in duplicate bridge that visually separates partners at the table from each other, in order to reduce the exchange of unauthorized information and prevent some forms of cheating. It is a panel made of plywood , spanned canvas or similar material, which is placed vertically, diagonally across the playing table, with a small door in the center and a slit beneath it. The door is closed during the bidding stage, and the players place their calls using bidding cards on a movable tray, which slides under the door. After the opening lead, the door is opened, but its size allows the players only to see the hands and cards played from the opposite side of the screen, not their partner's face. Screens are normally used on high-level competitions, such as World Bridge Olympiads , national teams championships and similar. They are always accompanied with bidding boxes and a tray for moving the bids across
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Bidding Box
A BIDDING BOX is a device used for bidding in bridge , usually in duplicate bridge competitions. Made in various configurations and sizes, it is typically a plastic box with two holding slots, each containing a set of bidding cards: one with 35 cards with symbols of bids, and the other with cards for other calls (pass, double, etc.). Invented in Sweden
Sweden
in 1962, they were first used at a World Bridge Championships game in 1970. Their usage eventually spread in Europe, United States and across the world, and today they present a virtually indispensable piece of equipment even for home-played games. Use of bidding boxes has several advantages over oral bidding: it reduces noise in the room, prevents bidding being overheard at neighboring tables, allows easier review of the auction, and reduces the opportunity to pass unauthorized information to one's partner (intentionally or not) by the manner and intonation in which one makes one's bid
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Balancing (bridge)
In the game of contract bridge, BALANCING (or PROTECTION in Britain) refers to making a call other than Pass when passing would result in the opponents playing at a low level. Balancing is done by the player in the balancing position, i.e. to the right of the player making the last non-pass call. This is in contrast to bidding in the direct position, i.e. by the player to the left. Balancing is normally done with values unsuitable for direct action, but only after the opponents' bidding has demonstrated weakness or minimal strength. The aim of the tactic is to find a makeable or nearly-makeable contract for one's own side or to "push" opponents a level higher. It is more common in matchpoint games, where even a defeat and loss of 100 points is a relatively better result than the opponents' gain of 110-140 points
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