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Arctic Hare
4, see text Arctic hare
Arctic hare
rangeThe Arctic hare[2] (Lepus arcticus), or polar rabbit, is a species of hare which is highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, and other icy biomes. The Arctic hare
Arctic hare
survives with shortened ears and limbs, a small nose, fat that makes up 20% of its body, and a thick coat of fur. It usually digs holes in the ground or under snow to keep warm and sleep. Arctic hares look like rabbits but have shorter ears, are taller when standing, and, unlike rabbits, can thrive in extreme cold. They can travel together with many other hares, sometimes huddling with dozens or more, but are usually found alone, taking, in some cases, more than one partner
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Conservation Status
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future
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Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland
Newfoundland
(/ˈnjuːfən(d)lənd, -lænd, njuːˈfaʊndlənd/;[5] French: Terre-Neuve)[6] is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle
Strait of Belle Isle
and from Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
by the Cabot Strait
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Protozoan
Protozoa
Protozoa
(also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] Historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals," because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] Although the traditional practice of grouping of protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy. In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa
Protozoa
is a high-level taxonomic group
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Nematode
(see text)SynonymsNematodes Burmeister, 1837 Nematoidea
Nematoidea
sensu stricto Cobb, 1919 Nemates Cobb, 1919 Nemata Cobb, 1919 emend.The nematodes (UK: /ˈnɛmətoʊdz/, US: /ˈniːməˌtoʊdz/) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).[2][3] They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments
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Filaria
The Filarioidea are a superfamily of highly specialised parasitic nematodes.[1][2] Species within this superfamily are known as filarial worms or filariae (singular "filaria"). Infections with parasitic filarial worms cause disease conditions generically known as filariasis. Drugs against these worms are known as filaricides.Contents1 Introduction 2 Taxonomy 3 Filarioidea and disease 4 Life cycle of Filarioidea 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] Filarioidea all are specialised parasites and the definitive host is always a vertebrate, a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian, but not a fish. The intermediate host is always an Arthropod.[3] Most of Filarioidea parasitise wild species, birds in particular, but some, especially in the family Onchocercidae, attack mammals, including humans and some domestic animals
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Lice
Anoplura Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera Amblycera Louse
Louse
(plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect. Lice are obligate parasites, living externally on warm-blooded hosts which include every species of bird and mammal, except for monotremes, pangolins, and bats. Lice are vectors of diseases such as typhus. Chewing lice live among the hairs or feathers of their host and feed on skin and debris, while sucking lice pierce the host's skin and feed on blood and other secretions. They usually spend their whole life on a single host, cementing their eggs, which are known as nits, to hairs or feathers. The eggs hatch into nymphs, which moult three times before becoming fully grown, a process that takes about four weeks. Humans host three species of louse, the head louse, the body louse and the pubic louse
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Flea
Ceratophyllomorpha Hystrichopsyllomorpha Pulicomorpha PygiopsyllomorphaSynonymsAphanipteraFleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera. As external parasites of mammals and birds, they live by consuming the blood of their hosts. Adults are up to about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and usually brown. Bodies flattened sideways enable them to move through their host's fur or feathers; strong claws prevent them from being dislodged. They lack wings, and have mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood and hind legs adapted for jumping. The latter enable them to leap a distance of some 50 times their body length, a feat second only to jumps made by froghoppers. Larvae are worm-like with no limbs; they have chewing mouthparts and feed on organic debris. Over 2,500 species of fleas have been described worldwide
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Parasitic Worm
Helminths (/ˈhɛlmɪnθs/), also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular organisms, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature. They are often referred to as intestinal worms even though not all helminths reside in the intestines. For example, schistosomes are not intestinal worms, but rather reside in blood vessels. The word helminth comes from ancient Greek ἕλμινς, hélmins, an intestinal worm. There is no consensus on the taxonomy of helminths. It is simply a commonly used term to describe certain worms with some similarities. These are flatworms (platyhelminthes), namely cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes), and roundworms or nemathelminths (nematodes) – both of these are parasitic worm types – and the annelida, which are not parasitic or at the most ectoparasites like the leeches.[1] Helminths are worm-like organisms living in and feeding on living hosts
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Canadian Arctic Archipelago
The Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago, also known as the Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland. Situated in the northern extremity of North America
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Northern Canada
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada
Canada
variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Similarly, the Far North (when contrasted to the North) may refer to the Canadian Arctic: the portion of Canada
Canada
north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle and lies east of Alaska
Alaska
and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canada's total land area, but has less than 1 percent of Canada's population. For some purposes,[clarification needed] Northern Canada
Canada
may also include Northern Quebec
Quebec
and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the arbitrary concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called "northernness" that other Arctic territories share
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Labrador
Labrador
Labrador
(/ˈlæbrədɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Labrador
Labrador
occupies the eastern part of the Labrador
Labrador
Peninsula. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador
Labrador
also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut
Nunavut
on Killiniq Island. Though Labrador
Labrador
covers 71 percent of the province's land area, it has only 8 percent of the province's population
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Plateau
In geology and physical geography a plateau ( /pləˈtoʊ/, /plæˈtoʊ/ or /ˈplætoʊ/; plural plateaus or plateaux[1][2]),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers
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Least Concern
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened, near threatened, or (before 2001) conservation dependent. Species
Species
cannot be assigned the Least Concern category unless they have had their population status evaluated. That is, adequate information is needed to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution or population status. Since 2001 the category has had the abbreviation "LC", following the IUCN 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1).[1] However, around 20% of least concern taxa (3261 of 15636) in the IUCN database use the code "LR/lc", which indicates they have not been re-evaluated since 2000
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Rock Ptarmigan
some 20–30, including:L. m. muta (Montin, 1781) Scandinavian ptarmigan L. m. rupestris (Gmelin, 1789) Canadian rock ptarmigan L. m. helvetica (Thienemann, 1829) Alpine ptarmigan L. m. japonica H. L. Clark, 1907 Japanese ptarmigan L. m. millaisi Hartert, 1923 Scottish ptarmiganRock Ptarmigan range[2]Distribution in Europe[2]Distribution in North America[2]SynonymsTetrao mutus Montin, 1781 Lagopus
Lagopus
mutus (lapsus, see below)The rock ptarmigan ( Lagopus
Lagopus
muta) is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family. It is known simply as the ptarmigan in the UK and in Canada, where it is the official bird for the territory of Nunavut, Canada,[3] and the official game bird for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada,[4]. In Japan, it is known as the raichō (雷鳥), which means "thunder bird"
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