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Architectural
Architecture
Architecture
is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.[3] Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The term architecture is also used metaphorically to refer to the design of organizations and other abstract concepts
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Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo vaˈzaːri]; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.Contents1 Early life 2 Painting 3 Architecture 4 The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects 5 Social standing 6 Public collections 7 Gallery 8 References and sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Vasari was born in Arezzo, Tuscany.[
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Poststructuralism
Post-structuralism
Post-structuralism
is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.[1][2][3] The term is defined by its relationship to the system before it— Structuralism, an intellectual movement developed in Europe from the early to mid-20th century which argues that human culture may be understood by means of a structure—modeled on language (i.e., Structural Linguistics)—that differs from concrete reality and from abstract ideas—a "third order" that mediates between the two.[4] Post-structural
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Course (architecture)
A course is a layer of the same unit running horizontally in a wall. It can also be defined as a continuous row of any masonry unit such as bricks, concrete masonry units (CMU), stone, shingles, tiles, etc.[1] Coursed masonry construction is that in which units are arranged in regular courses, and not irregularly
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Rationalism
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge"[3] or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".[4] More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".[5] In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction
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Empiricism
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism
Empiricism
emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions;[2] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3] Empiricism
Empiricism
in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments
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Lives Of The Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, And Architects
The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Italian: Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori), also known as The Lives (Italian: Le Vite), is a series of artist biographies written by 16th-century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered "perhaps the most famous, and even today the most-read work of the older literature of art",[1] "some of the Italian Renaissance's most influential writing on art",[2] and "the first important book on art history".[3] The title is often abridged to just the Vite or the Lives. It was first published in two editions with substantial differences between them; the first in 1550 and the second in 1568 (which is the one usually translated and referred to)
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Structuralism
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternatively, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture".[1] Structuralism
Structuralism
in Europe developed in the early 1900s, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
and the subsequent Prague,[2] Moscow[2] and Copenhagen schools of linguistics
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Greece
Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern Europe,[10] with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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National Congress Of Brazil
Government (58)     MDB (22)      PSDB (10)      PP (7)      PSD (5)      DEM (4)      PR (4)      PTB (2)      PRB (1)      PSC (1)      PTC (1)      PPS (1)Opposition (20)     PT (9)      PSB (7)      PDT (2)      PCdoB (1)      REDE (1)Independent (2)     PV (1)      Independent (1)Chamber of Deputies political groupsGovernment (351)     MDB (65)      PSDB (47)      PP (47)      PR (39)      PSD (36)      DEM (29)      PRB (24)  
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Sustainability
In ecology, sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.[1] Sustainability science
Sustainability science
is the study of sustainable development and environmental science.[2] Sustainability
Sustainability
can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal.[3] An ideal is by definition unattainable in a given time and space
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Golden Ratio
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship
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Phenomenology (philosophy)
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness. As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany. It then spread to France, the United States, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl's early work.[1] Phenomenology should not be considered as a unitary movement; rather, different authors share a common family resemblance but also with many significant differences. Accordingly:A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and perhaps even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus
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Parthenon
Coordinates: 37°58′17″N 23°43′35″E / 37.9714°N 23.7265°E / 37.9714; 23.7265ParthenonΠαρθενώναςThe ParthenonGeneral informationType TempleArchitectural style ClassicalLocation Athens, GreeceConstruction started 447 BC[1][2]Completed 432 BC[1][2]Destroyed Partially on 26 September 1687Height 13.72 m (45.0 ft)[3]DimensionsOther dimensions Cella: 29.8 by 19.2 m (98 by 63 ft)Technical detailsSize 69.5 by 30.9 m (228 by 101 ft)Design and constructionArchitect Iktinos, CallicratesOther designers Phidias
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Athens
Athens
Athens
(/ˈæθɪnz/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece
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Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
(Italian: [fiˈlippo brunelˈleski]; 1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.[4] He was one of the founding fathers of the Renaissance. He is generally well known for developing a technique for linear perspective in art and for building the dome of the Florence
Florence
Cathedral. Heavily dependent on mirrors and geometry, to "reinforce Christian spiritual reality", his formulation of linear perspective governed pictorial depiction of space until the late 19th century.[5][6] It also had the most profound – and quite unanticipated – influence on the rise of modern science.[6] His accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and ship design
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